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Linguistics 301 Week 7 Notes - Semantics

by: Johanna Murphy

Linguistics 301 Week 7 Notes - Semantics Ling 301

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Linguistics and Speech Pathology > Ling 301 > Linguistics 301 Week 7 Notes Semantics
Johanna Murphy
GPA 3.96
Intro to Linguistic Analysis
Melissa Baese-Berk

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Week 7 lecture notes, semantics
Intro to Linguistic Analysis
Melissa Baese-Berk
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Ling 301 at University of Oregon taught by Melissa Baese-Berk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistic Analysis in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 11/12/15
Linguistics 301 Week 7 Notes Semantics Word Meaning 0 Referent something in the real world that a word is referring to 0 Reference a word s association with the object it refers to 0 Meaning of a word isn t just restricted to its reference 0 Many words don t have a real or specific referent 0 Some referents have multiple words or phrases that could refer to them I Example Barack Obama and the president of the US mean the same thing Sense 0 A mental represent of the word s meaning 0 unicorn has no realworld referent but people can still understand it 0 We have to know a sense in order to pick out referents 0 Knowing sense doesn t guarantee ability to pick out referents Examples of senses without referents O Hobbits 0 Talking chair Prototype most common or predictable referent that comes to mind for a specific word Some words have no mental image 0 Example of Word Reference 0 Proper names are easy to determine because they refer to a specific entity 0 Taj Mahal Barack Obama etc 0 Common nouns indicate a set of individuals 0 Example pigs indicates the set of all pigs in the world 0 Intransitive verbs indicate set of all ers in the world 0 Adjectives indicate set of all things in the world 0 Noun phrases may or may not refer to real world entities O I saw an amazing band last night referring to one specific band 0 I m looking for the best pizza not a referent because there is no specific pizza indicated 0 Reference is a property of words in context the meaning can change based on the context Relationships Among Words 0 Hyponyms X is a type of Y O A table is a type of furniture 0 The deeper the hyponym is nested the more marked it is O marked more specific moving away from the default 0 Folding table I table I furniture I folding table is the most nested and marked 0 Hypernyms the category 0 Furniture is a hypernym of table 0 PartW hole Relationships something is a part of something else 0 Fingers are a part of the hand 0 Synonyms have roughly the same meaning 0 Near Synonyms big and large not exactly the same meaning 0 Anytonyms X is the opposite of Y O Gradable Antonyms exist on a continuum short vs tall 0 Complementary have to be either one or the other dead vs alive 0 With antonyms one term is typically the default I Ask how tall are you rather than how short are you Converseness Reciprocalitv 0 Some words have reciprocal relationships 0 If Sue is Tom s parent then Tom is Sue s child 0 Commonly find converse lexical relationships between people sometimes between people and animals or objects Polysemes 0 If a word has 2 or more related meanings 0 Example simple 0 Not hard to dounderstand 0 Having few parts not complicated 0 bank isn t polysemic because its meanings aren t related so it s a homynym 0 Sometimes hard to tell difference between polysemes and homonyms Metaphor 0 Word s meanings are expanded or changed by metpharical expressions 0 Social and affective meaning affect word meaning 0 Report rips child labor in tobacco field 0 strikes a nerve O slammed 0 Time metaphors 0 Future is in front of us 0 Past is behind us I Ideas as objects I Sports as war Function Words I Semantics also has to address function words 0 Conjunctions determiners adjectives I Affect meaning at a larger level than just individual words Compositional Semantics I A claim expressed by a sentence that has a truth value can be either true or false 0 If you can ask whether it s true or false it s probably a proposition 0 Truth value can only be determined if you know truth conditions conditions that would make it true or false 0 In general depends on the situation I 2 cases that don t depend on situation 0 Tautology the busy president is buys I Information is offered within the sentence 0 Contradictions the red car is not red I Information contradicts itself I Entailment the truth of one proposition guarantees the truth of another 0 Entailment relationships exist regardless of truth values of the statement depend on truth conditions not truth values 0 Mutual Entailment two propositions entail one another I Jim lives in Salem OR entails that Jim lives in the capital of Oregon I Some babies do not cry entails that not all babies cry Compositionalitv I The meaning of an expression is a function of the meanings of the words it contains an how these words are syntactically combined 0 If the meaning of an NP is a member of the meaning of a VP then S is true 0 Jim bakes if Jim is a member of the set of people who bake then the sentence is true I For transitive verbs the meaning is still a set but a set of pairs of individuals 0 Jim hit John this is true if John is a hitter and John is a victim of being hit 0 Pure intersection concretely true or false 0 red caboose 0 Relative intersection true depending on context 0 tall 2yearold vs a tall 20yearold 0 Nonintersection adjectives do not require reference to objects denoted by the noun 0 Alleged killer could be but doesn t have to be a killer 0 Antiintersection reference of the resulting expressions cannot overlap with the noun s reference 0 money and counterfeit money cannot overlap contradict each other When Compositionalitv Fails 0 Idiomatic expressions 0 She put her foot in her mouth vs she put her coat in her closet very different meanings 0 Constituency tests fail with idioms because they have only one form with one meaning 0 Don t translate well wordforword Semantic Fields 0 Set of words that are related to one another 0 Cup mug wineglass tumbler goblet 0 Typically all belong to same parts of speech 0 Not all are equally likely 0 Set of colors including blue red green yellow etc is more likely that set of colors including indigo royal blue aquamarine 0 Both are sets of colors but the first set is less marked so more likely to occur 0 Superordinate Terms description of the semantic field 0 The above are color groups Tense 0 Can be indicated by words or bund morphemes 0 Affects meaning at the sentence level 0 He went to the store vs he is going to the store Mood Modalitv 0 Indication of speaker s attitude towards hisher statement 0 Epistemic Modality conveys attitude toward truth or reliability towards a subject 0 She probably won t call him 0 Deontic Modality expresses obligation permissions suggestion 0 You can come to my pizza party Deixis 0 Orientation of the speaker or utterance to points of reference usually in the real world 0 Personal Deixis indicates relationships between people usually using pronuns O can you tell me 0 you guys are a great class 0 Some personal pronouns indicate social distance I tu vs vous in French Spatial Deixis orientation in space 0 this vs that 0 here vs there 0 General egocentric orients around the speaker I this and that indicate how far something is from you Temporal Deixis orientation through time 0 Usually uses verb tense 0 Also temporal expressions last year tonight etc Textural Deixis orientation of the speaker or utterance to other utterances 0 this is going to piss you off but I told your mom that you smoke I this refers to the second section of the sentence Semantic Roles Mark drove his car to the store vs Mark went to the store in his car structured differently but have the same meaning NPs have semantic roles in sentences The seafood counter person sold the fish 0 the seafood counter person is the subject The fish was sold by the seafood counter person 0 Means essentially the same thing but in this case the fish is the subject In both cases the seafood counter person is doing the action Types of Semantic Roles Agent the individual or group that intentionally initiates some action Patient what is acted upon Instruments things involved in the action that aren t the agents of the action 0 Mark cooked the fish with the frying pan 0 the ball broke the window I The ball isn t the agent because the person who threw the ball is technically the one who broke the window the ball was the instrument in breaking it Themes a thing or person that is in a state or location or undergoes a change 0 Mark is nice Experiencers animate beings person or animal that have some kind of perceptual or mental experience Sources where a change or thing starts from Recipient the individual that comes into possession of something 0 Cause a natural force that brings about a change of state 0 the hurricane decimated the town 0 Locative the location of an action or state 0 Temporal the time at which an action or state occurred 0 1 NP 1 semantic role 0 Every noun phrase in a clause has a semantic role 0 Each semantic role can only occur once per clause Semantic Roles and Syntactic Roles 0 A subject is often the agent but not always 0 Shane hit the ball vs the ball was hit by Shane 0 You can tell what is a subject and what is an object based on what pronoun takes its place 0 Subjective Pronouns I you he she they 0 Objective Pronouns Me you him her them 0 Subjects typically come before verbs Grammatical Relations 0 Different from semantic roles in English a grammatical subject can be almost any semantic role Semantic Roles in the Lexicon 0 Some semantic roles require specific properties of the nouns filling them 0 Agents have to be animate 0 All languages have semantic roles however different languages have different semantic role requirements in the lexicons 0 In English semantic roles are not marked 0 Except s for possession 0 Other languages mark verbs very specifically


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