Weeks 2 and 3 lecture notes- IAH 202 Europe and The World
Weeks 2 and 3 lecture notes- IAH 202 Europe and The World IAH 202
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Stilwell on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAH 202 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Steinberg in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 177 views.
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Date Created: 01/28/15
Notes from lectures 15 The Haitian Revolution Represented in the book Avengers of the New Worldquot 0 represented the most radical political transformation of the Age of Revolutions that stretched from the 1770s to the 1830s 0 18th century a period where there was a wave of many different revolutions that took place Old Regime Societv o A traditional social and political order 0 A transformed feudal medieval society 0 traditional economic structure Agarian I 45 of area is rural people make living from farming I land ownership is the most traditional way of wealth 0 traditional social structure the three estates 0 traditional culture religious illiterate local I most people died where they were born stayed in the same village or area their whole lives 0 The hierarchal structure of Old Regime Society The Three Estates 0 God ranked above everyone as the main belief 0 King 0 First estate Clergy the ones that pray 0 Second estate Nobility the ones that fight I both the clergy and nobility made up around 5 of the population Third estate Everyone else the working people consisted of around 95 of the population The Clergy and Nobility owned much of the land were exempt from much of the taxes and held most of the positions of power 0 The third estate paid much of the taxes didn t own much of the land and were barred from political power 0 History fact 0 in 1789 the average age of marriage was 27 for women and 29 for men I The third estate married older because they have to prove they have assets or worth to the women before marrying The nobility already have worth and assets and can marry younger O Absolutism 0 Ranked God then the King then everyone else 0 Royal authority has four essential characteristics or qualities first it is sacred second it is paternal third it is absolute fourth it is subordinated to reasonquot 0 subordinatedgt you have to rule your country know your country and the people who inhabit your country 0 French Absolutism 0 Louis XIV The Sun King 16431715 0 L etat c est moi gt I am the statequot 0 So how did Louis do it I Centralization of power Administration intendants ministers Knowledge Largest Army in Europe Religion The Gallican Church Court Life Versailles I The court gravitated around ambition Nobody was tranquil or indifferent everybody was busily trying to better his or her position by pleasing by helping or by hindering somebody elsequot Madame de Lafayette Summary 0 Old Regime Europe was a traditional social political and economic structure 0 The main political system was absolutist monarchy o This entire structure would collapse toward the end of the 18th century The Atlantic Trade System What was the Atlantic System 0 A web of trade routes that bound together Western Europe Africa and the Americas 0 16th17th centuries Spain and Portugal dominate Atlantic trade 0 By the 18th century it is dominated by Western European states England France and the Netherlands 0 Take Home Points By the end of the 18th century this system was in crisis an important reason for this is the atlantic system which put new pressures on the social structure of the old regime o The old regime was too rigid to adapt to these new conditions hence its eventual collapse Europe and the Atlantic World in the 18th Century A web of trade routes where there is a constant trade of people goods and ideas between Europe Africa and the New World North America The atlantic svstemtriandle o This atlantic system enabled Europe to reach global dominance but put pressure on the Old Regime ultimately resulting in it crumbling down at the end of the 18th century 0 the same process that catapulted Europe to global dominance also helped destroy itself 0 What was the atlantic system 0 a web of trade routes 0 Africa buys slavesgt sends to the Caribbean through the middle passage 20 of slaves die in this passage I only about 4 make it to the Americas where they work on plantations to make products which are then sent to Europe 0 How did it work 0 Europeans bought slaves in Africa 0 Slaves taken to work in European colonies mostly the Americas and the Caribbean 0 Products of the slave labor are sold in Europe 0 NOTE although Europeans dominated the slave trade slavery itself existed mostly far from Europe 0 An early system of Globalization 0 The slave trade was an early example of early globalization I codependency between the world unique to modern history I unequal parts to the slave trade system 0 The result is a web of connections and exchanges across the atlantic movements of people goods and ideas gt increasing integration of economies populations and cultures around the world 0 In other words the Atlantic System created a codependency between different parts of the world This makes it an early instance of globalization I creates a different kind of wealth from capital commerce that s constantly increasing instead of land The Slave Trade in the 18th Century 0 Slave trade stood at the heart of the Atlantic System and was one of the major forms of contact between Europeans and nonEuropeans 0 these interactions influence not only the lives of the slaves but also the lives of Europeans 0 Not equal everyone gets transformed in the connections Slavery is an ancient institution 0 classical Greece and Rome were involved in slavery 0 modern slave trade is different from ancient 0 Ancient slavery consisted of slaves from all different races Atlantic Slave trade in 18th century was very different 0 the modern in the Modern Slave Trade I scale capitalism I nature racism 0 Main point the Atlantic slave trade expanded dramatically in the 18th century It also changed its nature slavery came to be identified with black people Racial ideologies justified and legitimated the slave trade I slaves were treated brutally because it was cheaper than providing safe situations in which slaves could reproduce and become costly I what made it possible to buy slaves one day and also be a good Christian another day gt Racism Transatlantic Slave Trade Basic facts 0 Existed in the 16th19th centuries early 1500s to later 1800s 0 125 million African slaves were traded 0 About 10 million made it to the Americas rest of them died in the Middle Passage 0 Reached peak in the 18th century 80 of slaves traded between 1700 and 1850 Nature of Atlantic Slave Trade 0 Europe didn t free the slaves instead they made the slave trade illegal 0 They were human beings but were treated as if they were commodities I packing them into ships like things are packed on shelves at a store Where did the slaves go 0 Few go to North America and Britain 0 Vast majority goes to the Caribbean and Brazil 0 These slaves were mostly imported into American Territories in 17011810 I Europeans benefitted from the slave labor products but were unaware of the harsh conditions and sources of labor that were put into each individual product that was created Plantation Labor 0 Overseen settlements with unfree labor 0 Plantations large tracts of land mostly in Caribbean islands and Brazil that produced staple crops were farmed by slave labor and were owned by colonial settlers from Western Europe Slaves worked 1517 hours a day Received minimum subsistence 12 days of work per week was enough to supply subsistence needs of slaves themselves the rest profit for the owners surplus extraction main plantation islands Barbados owned by the English Saint Domingue owned by the Frenchtoday s Haiti Jamaica owned by the english Martinique and Guadelupe owned by the French 0000 0000 The Slave Trade and Racism In the 18th century slavery came to be identified with black skin Racism became an ideology thatjustified and legitimated the slave trade lf Africans are inherently inferior if they are not fully human there is no problem in enslaving them One can be a good christian and a slave Hade 0 Racism is a specific phenomenon that happens at a specific time and place in history 0 putting slaves in certain circumstances that degrades their selfworth makes them nonhuman to the slave owners 0 modern racism is bound with capitalism 0 Main Points 0 1 The Atlantic system and the slave trade are crucial factors in explaining European global dominance in the modern period 0 2 Atlantic Slavery was modern because of its scale capitalism and nature racism Economic and cultural logics worked to reinforce each other New Goods New Life Stvles o What about goods traded in the Atlantic system 0 Sugar coffee chocolate tea tobacco textiles I each of these commodities could trace back to all of the slave globalization through the world I Chocolate came from Latin America and Mexico I was a luxury only rich people could afford to have it I Tea came from China I most consumed substance on earth after water and air I became a British staple I many people believed tea was medicinal I helped you stay awake thought to even give you a slight buzz I coffee came from Arabia and Ethiopia I Saint Domingue produced around 50 of the worlds coffee production in the 18th century I believed to help with sobriety o What happened to these products when they reached Europe 0 they became commodities goods that are traded in an expanding market 0 they enable the rise of a consumer society 0 they become modern 0 Modernity a double interlocking process of economic development and selfdevelopment o The consumer revolution 0 New products from the colonies lead to social cultural and political changes in Europe 0 Having commodities becomes a mark of social distinction 0 Life styles change and diet changes I constantly complained of tooth aches during this time due to the high amounts of sugar and chocolate I Life styles were expected to get better 0 Products that were virtually unknown decades earlier became basic ingredients in European everyday patterns of consumption new needs lead to new demand that leads to new needs etc the market is constantly expanding I we re always looking for new advanced technology I never a settlement with the technology we have now 0 Forces of Change 0 Atlantic systemgt Rise of commerce New goods commodities new forms of wealth capitalmoney instead of land 0 Growing middle class gt new lifestyles competition for power with the nobility o The enlightenmentgt new ideas powerful critiques of the existing order of things 0 Summary of main points 0 The atlantic system allowed for the emergence of European global dominance but it also created pressures on the ways of life in Europe o The Slave Trade stood at the center of this Atlantic System and was one of the major forms of contact between Europeans and nonEuropeans o The products of slave labor became commodities that were traded in a system that constantly expanded itself and that transformed the lives of Europeans The Enlightenment Preliminary characteristics of the Enlightenment o A philosophical and intellectual movement to change minds and reform institutions 0 its center mid18th century Paris wasn t only in Paris though 0 main idea reason as the source of knowledge 0 God is not the source of knowledge human reason is 0 Its representative products the encyclopedie an attempt to collect all of human knowledge in one place 0 consisted of everything from religion and faith to medicinal beliefs and even cuisine o commonly seen as one of the most important causes of the French Revolution Origins of the Enlightenment o The scientific revolution of the 17th century 0 Isaac Newton was a big name at this time founder of physics 0 increasing contact between Europeans and nonEuropeans o philosophies thinkers of the enlightenment were inspired by the indians indigenous people living on the islandsnew world at the time o inspired those in Europe to rethink their own lives and how they should be living them 0 The emergence of a literary marker The Scientific Revolution 0 Applied a new language to understand nature called mathematics 0 Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton 0 Result of what they foundgt an alternate explanation to what happens around us an explanation besides God 0 Didn t mean these two men weren t religious I 80 of what Newton wrote about was biblical things 0 Use math to predict new laws and how they work 0 Benjamin Franklin created a glass harmonica based on mathematical principles during this time Contact Between Europeans and NonEuroneans 0 Travel books were very common in 18th Century 0 Denis Diderot s supplement to Bougainvilles Voyage 1772 0 said people are living in paradise among the nature 0 Europeans thought that people of the new world were living life wrong I this myth made Europeans question their lives and wonder how they can live like the indigenous people The Emergence of a literary Market The public Sphere c you see the emergence of a social life where people can exchange ideas in between the state and society 0 meet read and exchange ideas in public spaces such as coffee shops 0 people talk about challenging the ideas of the old regime and monarchy and how they can change it 0 art history 0 artists in the 18th century depended upon people to buy their paintings in order to make money I public spaces were a good place to talk and make your name known to others 0 Literacy in France in the late 17th century late 18th century 0 end of 18th century gt growth in the percentage of people who could read and write 0 men had a much higher percentage than women The Enlightenment as a historical Phenomenon o The philosophies specifically the menwomen of the enlightenment o a new social type an engaged thinker committed to a cause 0 examples I Denis Diderot editor of l encyclopedie from 17481772 I recognized at young age for his intellectual ability sent to paris schools to study I published a pornographic novel called indiscrete jewelsquot I Many people wrote about sex during this time to help understand the human body I wrote a book questions God attacked religiongt was sent to prison because of this I 1740s was commissioned to help write l encyclopedie I Jean le Rond d Alembert I Abandoned as a baby on the steps of a church was later taken up by a family I famous mathematician also an editor of l encyclopedie I Enlightenment Skeptic FrancoisMarie Arouet Voltaire I lntervened in a murder case to help declare a man unguilty but only after the man was already sentenced to death was known greatly for this action crush superstition I I disagree with what you say but will fight to the death to let you say itquot o The Salon 0 literary gatherings usually hosted by women central for the dissemination of enlightenment thought 0 an avenue for woman to lead to greater things in the future 0 women took chocolatequot drank hot chocolate and discussed ideas amongst one another 0 to be invited to an invite was an honor you had to make your name in the salons 0 often played a game called whipped o The Encyclopedie o the encyclopedia 17481770s the embodiment of the ideals of the enlightenment I if you have the knowledge at your hands you can use it how you want I many contributors wrote entries in here about anything I 1st volume consisted of a graph showing how the human mind was divided into 3 categories I reason our highest ability I memory least trustworthy because memory often deceives us I imagination the most dangerous ability The ideas of Enlightenment o Enlightenment is man s emergence from his selfimposed immaturity lmmaturity is the inability to use one s reason without guidance from anotherSoepere Aude Dare to knowthat is the motto of Enlightenment Immanuel Kant What is Enlightenment o we argue that children don t know how to use reason children and the insane gt don t use reason can t be tried against law without guidancequot refers to not getting help from priests kings parents etc emergence gt release from customs the way things have always been two main types of people I conservatism everything they do is drawn from the past I liberalsradicals tear away from tradition and create new things 0 The will to be ungoverned Some of the Enlightenment Values 0 A desire for human affairs to be guided by reason rather than faith OOOO o A belief in the power of reason to change society and liberate the individuals 0 The term social sciencequot was invented in this time 0 Main idea question everything around you
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