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ARHI 3100 - Third Writing Assignment Notes (week 1)

by: Dominique N.

ARHI 3100 - Third Writing Assignment Notes (week 1) ARHI 3100

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Art > ARHI 3100 > ARHI 3100 Third Writing Assignment Notes week 1
Dominique N.
GPA 3.74

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About this Document

These notes will cover China's Shang Dynasty, both periods of the Zhou Dynasty, mentioning of the Xia Dynasty, and the beginning of Confucius and Daoism.
Art History
Nicolas Morrissey
Class Notes
Ancient China, ancient, China, Asian, asian art, Asian Art History, Art History, Art, history, Daoism, Confucius, Laozi, Shang, Shang dynasty, dynasty, Zhou, Zhou dynasty, Xia, Xia dynasty, Neolithic, neolithic asia
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dominique N. on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARHI 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Nicolas Morrissey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Art History in Art at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
Neolithic China (10,000 ­ 2,000 BCE) (Primarily China, Korea, and Japan)  ● The Three Dynasties Period  ○ Xia (ca. 2000­1766 BCE)  ■ Very little material culture is attributed to this dynasty  ○ Shang (ca. 1766­1111 BCE)  ○ Zhou (1111­221 BCE)  ● A lot of extensive literary documentation helps document dynastic periods of China with  incredible precision (chronological progression)  ● The Shang Dynasty (ca. 1766­1111 BCE)  ○ More than a half dozen archaeological sites from this dynasty  ■ They are very different from what we have looked at because a lot of the  material comes from under the ground  ■ Burial sites (Burials associated with the Elite)  ■ Don’t have structural sites (secular structures, building foundations)  ■ There are primarily tombs  ■ Associated with the disposal and care of the dead  ■ Religion & Spirituality  ● Heaven (celestial realm ­ infused with positive, permanent  experiences), Earth (terrestrial world), and the Underworld (not  great; lonely experience, not necessarily an experience of pain;  souls are cast adrift; permanent state of being lost)  ○ Cosmological components  ● Ancestor Worship  ○ Honoring and respecting family members  ○ Deceased body was very carefully tended to  ■ By attending to the body, the celestial residence is  forever taken care of  ■ If you feed the ancestors (literally), then they will  be fed and have health in the afterlife  ■ Puts pressure on the living (familial responsibility)  ● Two Souls  ○ Hun (rises to heaven)  ■ In death, if everything goes right, you go to heaven  ○ Po (remains as a ghost)  ● Shamans & Divination  ○ Divination means ​ the practice of seeking knowledge of the  future or the unknown by supernatural means. This practice  is taken care of by Shamans (ritual specialists)  ○ Shamans  ■ Keep the world in balance  ■ To understand the supernatural world  ■ To help make decisions  ■ Oracle bones  ○ Tortoise Plastron: det.: front with inscription; Anyang circa 1400 BCE   ○ Square Ding, from the Tomb of Fu Hao, Henan, ca. 12th BCE Bronze   ■ Has some distinctive animal forms  ● Not a great deal of naturalism  ○ Square Ding, Zhengzhou, Henan, Early Shang Period  ○ Drawing of the Tao­tie Motif   ■ Motif is pervasive because it is represented so commonly  ○ Guang, Henan, ca. 12th century BCE Bronze   ■ Hybrid creature  ○ Yu Vessel, Henan ca. 11th century BCE Bronze  ■ Holding a human  ■ Brown color  ■ Donkey on its back  ○ Vessels = not easy to determine specific contents, but some things have been  found inside (i.e. rice, barley, hops, etc.); mostly dry and uncooked goods; in  some cases, tombs may have been frequently reaccessed on a regular basis to  replenish vessels.  ● Zhou Dynasty (1111­221 BCE)  ○ Formed with some higher ups from the Shang Dynasty  ○ Early (Western) Zhou (1045 ­ 770 BCE)  ○ Late (Eastern) Zhou (770 ­ 256 BCE)  ○ Largely occupied former territory of the Shang  ○ Uncommon for dynasties to secure power for immense periods of time  ○ You, Anhui, ca. 10th ­ 9th century BCE, Bronze   ■ Animal described as a Phoenix  ○ Ceremonial Food Vessel; bronze ­ Early Zhou Period   ■ Non descriptive body  ○ Mirror, Henan, Late Eastern Zhou Period, bronze inlaid with Gold and Silver   ■ Not sure why this is in a tomb  ■ Highly valued, vanity object  ■ Might be relevant to the person buried (special item to them used to keep  looks up)  ■ Mirrors still have the ability to reflect/catch the smallest amount of light in  a room of darkness  ■ Feline creature (perhaps a leopard or jaguar) with a horse w/ a rider  yielding a sword  ● Fits naturalism  ● Hunting  ● Exerting control over the forces of nature  ● Feline animal is being subjugated/controlled/oppressed which is  different from Shang Dynasty  ■ Circular forms  ● Represented as a snake  ● Don’t know particular symbolism of the form  ○ Increased elaboration, larger tombs, etc.  ○ Bianzhong (Chime of Bells), from the tomb of the Marquis Yi, Late Eastern Zhou  Period, 433 BCE, bronze and wood   ■ Waste of money  ■  Will never see light of day  ■ Possibly to remind the decease that someone is putting effort to ease their  comfort  ○ Bi disk, late Zhou dynasty, 4th ­ 3rd century BCE, Jade (Chinese art 33)   ■ Very often made out of jade (very highly valued) (semi­precious)  ■ Jade is more associated with a world beyond ours, rather than our  terrestrial world  ■ Found in tombs in high numbers  ■ No utilitarian function, possibly just a spiritual function  ● Shang vs. Zhou  ○ Shift is clearly reflected  ○ Difference in vessels  ● New Religious Developments  ○ Late (Eastern) Zhou: The period of 100 Philosophies  ○ 2 contemporary systems of thought  ■ Confucius: Master Kong (ca. 551 ­ 479 BCE) (confucianism)   ● Confucius (founder)  ○ Ethics and rules of social etiquette ­ interest in Order  ● Analects  ● “Ren”  ○ Rational relationships  ○ Filial Piety  ● Junzi  ○ Model citizen  ○ Scholarly gentlemen  ○ Experts in ritual, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy,  mathematics  ● Morality = good government = society harmony  ● Goal is to fix deterioration of foundations of society  ● Cultivate and maintain harmonious relationships between people  ● Chaos caused by deterioration of family relationships, people not  doing what they are supposed to do, people not performing duties  to ancestors, etc.  ● Emphasis on knowledge  ○ Must acquire wisdom through learning AND experience  ● Must of Confucian ideology is directed towards the top  ○ If you create order at the top, order will trickle down to  everyone (setting the example)  ■ Laozi: founder of Daoism (ca. 6th century BCE)   ● Laozi (founder)  ○ The inner “original” nature of self  ○ Intuition and the Dao  ● Dao­de Jing  ○ The classic of the way and its power  ● Key Concepts:  ○ Heart­mind  ○ Immorality ­ self cultivation  ○ Wuwei  ■ Non­action  ● No action is the best action  ● Order internally on an individual level  ● Remove yourself from the source of trouble 


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