Week 10 Notes
Week 10 Notes FSCN 1112
U of M
Popular in Principles of Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
Reviews for Week 10 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/12/15
Week 10 Vitamins Vitamins are essential organic substances that are required in the diet Water soluble vitamins are all B vitamins as well as vitamin C Fat soluble vitamins are vitamins ADE and K Fat soluble vitamins are much harder to absorb than water soluble vitamins DigestionAbsorption o Vitamins are not digested they are not broken down 0 Bile is very important in the absorption of fat soluble vitamins o All vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine 0 Water soluble vitamins go into the blood fat soluble vitamins go to the lymphatic system 0 Bacteria can produce some vitamins in the gut vitamin K 0 Water soluble vitamins are excreted in the urine if they are not absorbed 0 Excess fat soluble vitamins are stored in adipose tissue Vitamin A o Retinoids I Active form of vitamin A I Retinal retinol retinoic acid are a few different names of common retinoids I Commonly found in animal meat especially liver 0 Carotenoids I Need to be converted to an active form you need to consume more to get the same effect as retinoids I Betacarotene is the most abundant carotenoid I Present in most vegetables carrots leafy greens sweet potatoes 0 Absorption I Goes through chylomicron to the lymph system I Most vitamin A is stored in the liver liver disease can complicate storage I Distributed through VLDL 0 Function I Vision deficiencies can cause blindness I Growth and development vitamin A signals protein synthesis I Improves immune function I Improves skin health I Carotenoids are antioxidants o Deficiencies I Vitamin A deficiency is the number one deficiency in the world I Prevalent in developing countries not a big deal in the US I Deficiency is the leading cause of nonaccidental blindness I Liver disease can impact deficiencies O I Deficiency can cause partial blindness total blindness and skin disorders Toxicities I Only retinoids can be present in high enough amounts to be considered toxic I 3 types of toxicity acute one large dose chronic repeat doses of high levels teratogenic birth defects occur when toxic levels are present in pregnant women Vitamin D O O A conditional vitamin not always required in diet because it can be made other ways Foods contain the prohormone which is not an active form Foods with vitamin D oily fish cod liver oil fortified milks cereals Skin formation sunlight converts a type of cholesterol into the active form of vitamin D Infants have a very high vitamin D requirement for bone development Skin formation of vitamin D has many factors I Skin surface area I Time of year intensity of rays I Skin color darker skinned people have the ability to make more vitamin D I Exposure time I Time of day intensity of rays I Altitude high altitudes have more intense rays I Sunscreen inhibits vitamin D synthesis Absorption I Similar to other fat soluble vitamins I Stored in adipose tissue I The liver and the kidney help convert vitamin D from the diet and from the skin into the active form of vitamin D Function I Critical for bone development calcium and phosphorus homeostasis I Vitamin D is used to regulate the storage of calcium in bones I Supports immune health I Deficiencies can lead to cancer diabetes obesity Calcium pathway I When blood calcium is low PTH is released I Vitamin D is needed to get calcium out of the bones and into the blood Deficiencies I Rickets when vitamin D is low in children bones can t form properly so they grow very weak and deformed I Osteomalacia in adults bones soften without enough vitamin D o Toxicities I You can t get too much from the sunlight or the diet since both of those need to be converted to an active form the body will stop the process if levels get too high I Supplements can cause toxicity and can be fatal 0 Vitamin D and calcium work closely together in the body Vitamin E o 2 types tocopherols are the most important they are the active form of vitamin E found in plant oils 0 Functions I Antioxidants free radicles act on unsaturated fats to do permanent damage to the cell membrane so vitamin E in the membrane neutralizes the radicles I Free radicles can lead to many diseases I Selenium and vitamin E work together in many processes 0 Deficiencies I Anemia rare in humans I Affects immune system and brain function I Infants are often deficient when born 0 Toxicities I Too much can interfere with vitamin K pathways I Toxicities are almost always from supplements Vitamin K o Menaquinones from fish oils and meat can also be produced by gut bacteria 0 Phylloquinones from leafy greens peas green beans I This is the most active form in the body 0 Functions I Blood clotting I Bone health I Antiin ammatory o Deficiencies I Rare bacteria in gut provide some vitamin K I Most infants are deficient so they are injected with vitamin K at birth 0 It is almost impossible to have too much vitamin K in the body Vitamin Supplements 0 For most people vitamin supplements are not absorbed in the body 0 Vegans infants people with medical conditions should consider taking supplements o Supplements vary in quality since they are not heavily regulated Watersoluble vitamins Minimal storage in the body Low risk of toxicity but high risk for deficiency because sufficient levels are needed daily Watersoluble vitamins are easily destroyed by cooking These vitamins are often cofactorscoenzymes or they help produce them 0 Ex NAD and FAD need water soluble vitamins in order to work in their active form B Vitamins o Abundant in most grains enriched grains have been refined most vitamins have been taken out so more vitamins are added back in Thiamin B1 0 Found in pork sun ower seeds and legumes o Absorbed in small intestine and transported by red blood cells 0 Has an attached phosphate group to manage transport 0 Functions I A coenzyme needed for the citric acid cycle I Used during branched amino acid metabolism I Very important in nucleic acid production and red blood cell synthesis I Important in mammary gland growth 0 Deficiencies I Macrocytic anemia new red blood cells can t be made I Beriberi Disrupts carbohydrate metabolism Affects nervous system causes pain Congestive heart failure Most common in developing countries I WernicleKorsakoff Alcohol induced thiamin deficiency More thiamin is excreted through the urine less is consumed Prevalent in sever cases of alcoholism Ribo avin B2 0 Found in dairy products enriched grains and meat 0 Absorbed in small intestine and stored at minimal levels in the liver heart and kidneys 0 Functions I One of the main building blocks for FAD which is critical for the citric acid cycle oxidation of fatty acids and the electron transport chain I Ribo avin can be converted to other B vitamins in small amounts 0 Deficiencies I Leads to anemia I Increase oxidative stress I Aribo avinosis in ammation of the mouth and tongue Niacin B3 0 0 Can be converted from the amino acid tryptophan in the body but its not very efficient Found in most meats and grains Toxicity can only occur if supplements are misused Functions I Makes up part of the coenzyme NAD I A slightly different form of niacin can be given in very high doses to lower LDL and raise HDL cholesterol In some grains niacin is bound to the proteins so it needs to be processed to allow the niacin to be absorbed Deficiencies I Reduced DNA damage repair I Pellagra rough skin can also lead to dermatitis diarrhea dementia and even death I First widespread deficiency was when corn was first introduced people stopped eating other grains so they stopped consuming niacin Pantothenic Acid BS 0 Biotin Functions I In the body it functions as coenzyme a which is turned into acetylCoA I Deficiencies are rare because they are found in so many foods Found in grains meats nuts and legumes Stored in small amounts in the liver and brain Functions I Required for metabolism of carbs fats and proteins Deficiencies I Rare however there is a genetic disorder where biotin can t be digested I Excessive consumption of raw eggs can lead to deficiency when a raw egg protein binds to biotin making it not effective
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'