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Y375 Week 3 Day 2

by: M. Stevens

Y375 Week 3 Day 2 POLS-Y375

Marketplace > Political Science > POLS-Y375 > Y375 Week 3 Day 2
M. Stevens
GPA 3.6
War and International Conflict
Karen Rasler

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War and International Conflict
Karen Rasler
One Day of Notes
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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by M. Stevens on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to POLS-Y375 at a university taught by Karen Rasler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 165 views.

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Date Created: 01/28/15
PolsY375 Week 3 Class 2 Graph 1 In ows of foreign fighters to ISIS from 102013 to 102014 as well as the additional in ows from 102014 to 12015 via ICSR King s College London 12015 Pape s Cutting the Fuse 2010 Loyalties of suicide mission volunteers 0 Multiple loyalties to communities families etc among potential volunteers 0 Loyalty for external kindred communityquot outweighs local ties I When this loyalty outweighs they are more likely to join Foreign military presence is still a primary motivation o Anger over presence of Western combat forces in Muslim lands I Associated with suffering humiliation become grievances of suffering communities and those sympathizing all over the world who eventually join 0 Anger over Western drone attacks against local Muslims I Increase over Obama administration 0 Anger over how the West props up illegitimate corrupt governments in the areas they occupy Western intervention in Muslim airs radicalization 0 Same argument as previous publication How much is the US military actually present Graph 2 As of 2013 156 Countries with US troops 63 countries with US military bases and troops 7 countries with 13 new US military bases since 911 46 countries without US military presence 0 Anywhere from 7001000 bases all over the world I Understandably resented Graph 3 US Special Forces Operations 20122013 by Nick Turse Graph 4 Size and Scope of US Military Operations in Africa 20122013 Military training advising engaging in tactical deployments Security cooperationquot Army National Guard Partnerships Bases forwarding operating sites contingency security spots Training and advising of indigenous troops Video Reza Aslan Westerners Ioining ISIL httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvDij FILdpeo Romantic fantasyquot sense of dispossession longing for place for Islam Lack of belonging as Muslim ISIS presents readymade identityquot Grand project to recreate the globe as they know itquot Parallel to gang research Sense of collective belonging ISIS different from gangs in the creation of utopia or perfect world ISIS taps into global groups different grievances and draws these different groups in o ie Bin Laden Complained about Global Warming in order to draw audience of young politically active Americans Grievances need to be addressed within these countries by Western countries as well instead of just addressing ISIS militarily ISIS masters of propagandaquot Generational divide between Islamic State and AlQaeda o Allows younger people to identify with ISIS and creates competition between both generations ISIS unlikely to make transnational terrorist attack in US Before Oct 2014 400 Westerners involved in ISIS o 12015 over 4000 Clicker Question Pape s Theory Transnational suicide terrorists identify with the suffering of Muslim communities abroad oppose Western military presence believe they are defending Islam s degradation Some Weaknesses in Pape s Argument Ignores sectarian suicide terrorist attacks 0 Neglects the role of sectarian rivalry Sunnis vs Siites in Middle East UnderEstimates the role of Islamic beliefs 0 Neglects importance of Islamic rhetoric in recruitment o Overlooks the Islamic belief of ummah I Universal Muslim community linked throughout the world Empirical Evidence is awed 0 Pape s cases involve only suicide terrorism not overall terrorism 0 In order to understand suicide terrorism one must understand terrorism as a whole and all different varying forms of terrorism Overly narrowed understanding of terrorism 0 To what extent will his theory apply Not all terrorist groups are alike eg African National Congress make distinct choice NOT to go after noncombatants Rival explanations exist repressive governments failed states civil war etc o ie ISIS ability to accrue territory makes alliances with local Sunni groups I Sunni s were disenfranchised excluded from Shiite run government I Long history of tension amongst Sunnis and Shiites I ISIS threatens Sunni security and protection Join or Fight Ioin I ISIS offers alternative to existing government Goals of suicide attackers are broader than withdrawal of foreign occupiers o ie universal Muslim community massacre of Christian communities law against females kidnapping of women and children sale into slavery Mia Bloom s Dying to Kill 2007 There are multiple audiences for suicide attacks 0 Target audience Witnesses 0 International audience donors amp patrons in diasporas I Diaspora Groups of people that are no longer located in the region people who have emigrated external community connected by religion ethnicity experience but still identify with abroad community ie Irish Diaspora Boston MA provided arms for Troubles of Northern Ireland in 90 s Sympathetic Audiences Terrorist Groups Suicide Attackers Bloom InterOrganizational Rivalry ie ISIS Baghdadi vs AlQaeda Zewahiri Rivalry leads to interorganizational competition Rival insurgent groups compete for 0 Attention o Distinction from other groups 0 Recruits 0 Resources Competitions leads to radicalization of tactics o Rival insurgents ramp up violence to a process of outbidding I ie Charlie Hebdo attack Bloom Two More Key Arguments More public support for suicide terrorism the more likely insurgents will use it When does the public support suicide terrorism 0 Culturalhistorical explanation Martyrdom o Governments repressive policies 0 Peace negotiations yield little political success I ie Hamas in Gaza Palestine Israel Prediction of Extremist Attack from Al Qaeda Summer 2014 Headline US on Alert for Al Qaeda Attack as Group Battles ISIS for Top Terroristquot Europeans worried that members of alQaeda affiliate would detonate bombs on railways and buses in London and Paris July 2014 Charlie Hebdo Attack in Paris 12 dead January 7th 2015


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