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Special Topics-Coletta-01-27-15

by: Cassandra Hoffarth

Special Topics-Coletta-01-27-15

Marketplace > Arizona State University > Special Topics Coletta 01 27 15
Cassandra Hoffarth
GPA 3.31

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One Day of Notes
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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Cassandra Hoffarth on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at Arizona State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 01/28/15
SPECIAL TOPICS MOLECULAR BASIS OF OBESITY AND DIABETES LECTURE GIVEN BY DAWN COLETTA NOTES FROM LECTURE 01272015 Percent Men 915 1117 1219 Women 1421 1523 1625 4 auto antibodies total amount of auto antibodies 9 Use these to test for Type I diabetes if you have two auto antibodies then your on your way to having type I diabetes 9 If you have 4 then you have it Types of Obesity A person is considered obese when the amount of body fat increases beyond the point where health deteriorates and life expectancy is shortened Two Types of Obesity 1 Android Obesity Truncal distribution of fat associated with high incidence of cardiovascular disorders fat is stored in organs visceral which is dangerous and causes more problems 2 Gynecoid Obesity Fat distributed to thighs and buttocks Worldwide Prevalence of obesity Obesity defined as a BMI above 30 is a common condition in every continent Total Prevalence of Obestiy in the US in adults Total Prevalence of Obesity in the US in youth Approximately 17 or 125 million of children and adolescents aged 219 years are obese in the US Defining Obesity in Adults Criteria of Diainosis of Obesity in Adults Bariatric surgery candidates need to be at 35 BMI In the US data from 2007 and 2010 reports that adult men in the US on average have a BMI of 286 and adult women have an average BMI of 287 In the US data from 2007 and 2010 reports that adult men in the US on average have a WC of 1008 cm Adult women have an average WC of 953 cm Criteria for Diagnosis of Obesity in Children Body Mass Index is acceptable for determining obesity for children two years of age and older After BMI is calculated for children and teens the MBMI number is plotted on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention BMIforage growth charts to obtain a percentile ranking Percentiles are the most commonly used indicator to assess the size and growth patterns of individual children in the United States The percentile indicates the relative position of the child s BMI number among children of the same sex and age Estimated Costs of Obesity in US The annual medical costs of an obese person are on average 1400 more than those of someone in the normal BMI range Summary of Lecture 3 The different types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes T1D type 2 diabetes T2 D gestational diabetes and others genetic druginduced infections endocrinopathies Diabetes is diagnosed based on glucose levels or hemoglobin A1C HbAlc values The prevalence of diabetes especially type 2 is rapidly and relentlessly increasing in both adults and the young The estimated costs of diagnosed diabetes in 174 billion a year There are a number of classification of obesity including simple genetic endocrine hypothalamusrelated or druginduced There are two types of obesity android and gynecoid Obesity can be diagnosed a number of ways including body mass index waist circumference waist to hip ratio skinfold thickness or body fat percentage The prevalence of obesity increased rapidly during the last decades of the 20th century The estimated costs of obesity is 150 billion a year LECTURE 5 NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY METABOLISM AND ADIPOSE TISSUE Introduction to Metabolism Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions in an organisms Cellular metabolism Includes all chemical reactions within the cells Provides energy to maintain homeostasis and perform essential functions Cells break down organic molecules to obtain energy used to generate ATP Most energy production takes place in mitochondria What is the nutrient pool Contains all organic building blocks cell needs to provide energy and to create new cellular components Is a source of substrates for catabolism and anabolism What is catabolism Is the breakdown of organic substrates and the release of energy which is used to synthesize highenergy compounds ATP What is anabolism Is the synthesis of new organic molecules Cellular Metabolism and ATP Production Cellular metabolism Cells break down excess carbohydrates first then lipids Cells converse amino acids 9the rest is released as heat Function of Organic Compounds Store Nutrient Reserves Glycogen Most abundant storage carbohydrate A branched chain of glucose molecules Triglycerides Most abundant storage lipids Primarily of fatty acids Proteins Most abundant organic components in body Perform many vital cellular functions Nutrient Use in Cellular Metabolism Structural functional and storage components Triglycerides glycogen and proteins Occurs in mitochondria Absorptive FedState and Postabsorptive fasted state Nutrient requirements of each tissue vary with types and quantities of enzymes present in cell Metabolic tissues include liver adipose tissue skeletal muscle and others Liver Is focal point of metabolic regulation and control Contains great diversity of enzymes that break down or synthesize carbohydrates lipids and amino acids Adipose Tissue Store lipids primarily as triglycerides Skeletal Muscle Maintains substantial glycogen reserves Is the major site of insulinstimulated glucose disposal Absorptive FedState and Postabsorptive Fasted State Metabolism is Controlled by Insulin and glucagon Fed State Insulin Dominates low glucagon Increase in 9 Glucose oxidation 9 Glycogen synthesis 9 Fat synthesis 9 Protein synthesis Fasted State Glucagon Dominates low insulin Increase in 9 Glycogenolysis 9 Gluconeogenesis 9 Ketogenesis


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