ANS 02 - Introduction to Animal Science
ANS 02 - Introduction to Animal Science ANS 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aiden Leong on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 002 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. James Murray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introductory Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Introduction to Applied Animal Behavior Guest Lecturer Dr. Maja M. Makagon firstname.lastname@example.org 1255 Meyer Hall th March 30 , 2016 I. Road Map a. Definition b. Approaches to studying animal behavior c. Using behavior to measure/explain other phenomena II. Animal Behavior: Definitions and Applications a. AT THE END: to be able to appreciate the study of animal behavior b. Animal Behavior i. Definition: actions and reactions of an animal ii. Ethology = the study of animal behavior iii. Applied ethology = the study of animal behavior in situations where they interact with humans iv. Applications 1. Conservation attempts EX. Brush-tailed phascogale a. Marsupial in Australia that became extinct in some areas of the country b. Males would leave when scientists tried to reintroduce the species back into the country i. Had to study WHY they did that ii. Realized that they must be near a female in order to want to stay 2. Companion animal care EX. Adoption success rate, understanding cues a. Read the cues for animals for safety reasons, especially around children 3. Animal training 4. Animal housing/management & Animal welfare III. Approaches to Studying Animal Behavior a. AT THE END: know the variety of approaches/methods and to think about the questions that should be asked about every observed behavior (4 tradition and 1 newer = 5 questions in total) b. Tinbergen’s 4 Questions i. Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen 1. Was awarded the nobel prize in physiology or medicine 1973 for “their discoveries ------“ 2. Nikolaas Tinbergen (1963) a. “On the aims and methods of ethology” i. 4 major categories of questions to be asked of an animal’s behavior 1. Proximate causation “What causes the behavior?” 2. Function “How does the behavior contribute to the animal’s survival?” 3. Development “How does the behavior change over the animal’s lifetime?” 4. Evolution “How did the behavior arise over the course of evolution” ii. BEHAVIOR IS MULTIFACETED, THESE ARE NOT ISOLATED TOPICS iii. Sow behavior 1. Proximate causation “Which neural pathways are involved in stimulating the sow to begin nest building?”, “Will nest building occur even if there are no given materials?” 2. Development ”Does the preference for the nesting substrates change over the course of the sow’s lifetime?” 3. Function “Does the behavior affect the likelihood the piglets will survive/would survive if raised in the wild?” 4. Evolution “Do related species also engage in nest building behaviors?” , “How has nest building progressed/started through domestication?” iv. New(er) approaches/additional questions 1. Behavioral questions that can be asked, which go beyond 2. Affect a. “What does the behavior mean to the animal?” b. Example 1: walking ability of ducks i. Behavior of interest: walking ability ii. Background: reduced walking ability is a problem observed in poultry raised for meat, including ducks. The walking abilities of ducks within a flock can vary greatly iii. Walking ability is typically evaluated using a fait score: 1. Good gait = ducks that have an even waddle 2. Awkward gait = ducks have an awkward waddle, but issue is not obvious 3. Moderate gait = ducks have an identifiable issue (stiff legs, obvious limp) 4. Poor gait = ducks are not able to sustain a walk iv. It is not necessarily obvious whether decreased gait score indicates a problem for the duck v. Does poor gait affect the duck’s ability to walk long distances IV. Behavioral Correlated of Keel Bone Damage in Laying Hens a. Observed Phenomenon: several researches have reported that up to ~40% of laying hens housed in commercial furnished cage systems have some degree of keel bone damage b. Research Question: what types of behaviors put hens housed in furnished cage systems at risk of developing keel bone damage c. We are evaluating: i. What types of behaviors correspond to high impacts at the keel ii. What types of behaviors and impacts contribute to keel bone damage risk d. Significance: i. Information provides management and cage design insight aimed at minimizing V. Animal Behavior Research a. Observed phenomenon b. Pose a research question i. Formulate a research hypothesis 1. Should be grounded in previous research/theory ii. Select appropriate methodology/ collect primary data 1. Collect data and analyze a. Interpretation & conclusions i. Further research c. Research Methods i. Experimental ii. Observational 1. Sitting there and writing about what animals do through observation data 2. Behavioral Observation a. When to observe? b. How many to observe? c. Which behaviors to observe? How to identify/define the behavior? i. Ethogram = a catalogue of behaviors performed by an animal ii. A good ethogram should: 1. Have clearly defined; mutually exclusive categories 2. Include objective, not subjective language d. How to ensure the animal isn’t reacting to you? e. How to measure the behavior? Which sampling method to use? i. Who do you sample? 1. Whoever is within view (ad libitum) 2. Specific animals within a group (focal) 3. The whole group (scan) ii. How often do you collect data 1. Continuous a. Keep getting observation data in a time duration b. Duration = sum of the duration of each event c. Number of Bouts = number of times event occurred d. Pro: true representation of activity; duration e. Con: can be very time consuming 2. Instantaneous a. Subdivide time span into chunks b. At exactly time, what specimen did 3. One-zero sampling a. Use time intervals b. During that time slot, did specimen do phenomenon
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