Chapter 2 and 3
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Shaw on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1500-005 at Clemson University taught by Marianne H. Glaser in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Chapter 2: Connecting Perceptions and Communication Perception • The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information to give personal meaning to the communication we receive o Personal meaning à reason why perception is so complex • In other words, perception is the process of deciding what we are going to pay attention to and what we are going to ignore and then drawing conclusions Perception and Communication • Perceptions are based on our experiences • Perception gives meaning to our communication • Perception influences how we communicate with others o Miscommunications will start to occur here • Perception is a complex phenonmenon The Perception Process – 3 stages • Selection o Exposure o Attention o Retention o Sort stimuli o Library bridge à I'm going to select and pay attention to what they are doing o Selectively pay attention to things that focus on our needs o Selectively remember § Broke our expectations § Life consequence: eye witness testimony • Organization o Closure à we fill in the missing pieces § We start making assumptions and stereotypes but it is needed b/c there is too much info § Bad when we add biases o Proximity o Similarity o There is too much info and we need to synthesize it o Simplify and label • Interpretation o Past experiences o New situations o Opinions of others o Trying to make sense of the info o Use past experiences to explain the new o Your reality vs. someone else’s reality The Perception Process • Plenty of scope for error and inaccuracy • We are probably all guilty of saying, “I thought you said…” • Can anyone think of an occasion where you found yourself saying this? • Can we ever take back something we said? Perception Process is Complex • A simple exchange of conversation between two people involves: o My perception of me o My perception of you o My perception of how you are perceiving me o Your perception of you o Your perception of me o Your perception of how I am perceiving you • Self-concept o Believing you can do something well or poorly • Self-esteem o Value you place on something you do well or poorly • Social construction of self o You were different “hats” in different situations • Self-monitoring o Self talk (intrapersonal communication) Why do people perceive the same situation in different ways? (7 factors) probably a star question • Perceptual set o Stereotyping o Allows past to control perceptions; ignore differences • Attribution Error o Fundamental attribution error o Attempt to understand reason behind other peoples perceptions • Physical Characteristics o If your 5 senses work different than someone else • Psychological State o Brain/filter o Can dictate how your day will be • Cultural Background o Ethnocentrism (just b/c we do it one way, doesn’t mean that my way is better) o Set on beliefs and values and norms • Gender • Media The Perception Process • When communicating, how can we ensure that we have understood correctly? • How can we ensure that what we have said has been understood? Guidelines for Competent Communicators • Separate facts from assumptions • Perceptions, especially first impressions, are not always accurate • Recognize your personal biases • People from different cultural backgrounds do not always attach the same meaning to events • Don’t be afraid to verify your perceptions • Admit misperceptions and change if needed Chapter 3: Connecting Self and Communication Understanding Self-Concept STAR QUESTION ¤ Self-concept/self-identity is our perceived self, made up from our: ¤ Beliefs, attitudes, experiences ¤ Self-image is how we see ourselves ¤ What makes up who you are ¤ Self-esteem is our feelings and attitudes toward ourselves ¤ How you value yourself Development of Self-concept ¤ Sensing our environment ¤ Sights smells, people who talk to you and how they talk to you ¤ Parental Communication ¤ The parental role ¤ Not just verbally, remember nonverbal is important ¤ Others’ communication ¤ We focus on others to obtain this information ¤ Values ¤ Broad-based ideals, relatively long-lasting ¤ Attitudes ¤ Feelings or positions about ourselves, others, ideas, or objects ¤ Beliefs ¤ Convictions in the truth of something that lacks absolute truth • Communication affects our self-concept • Our self-concept affects our communication Personal-social identity continuum STAR QUESTION ¤ The 2 distinct ways the self can be categorized: ¤ At a personal level (as a unique individual) ¤ Son or daughter ¤ Student ¤ Sorority or fraternity sister or brother ¤ At the social identity level (as a member of a group) ¤ Family member ¤ Member of the freshman class ¤ Part of the Greek organization ¤ Your identity is dependent of the situation ¤ We describe ourselves according to the context Culture and self-concept ¤ Individualistic orientation ¤ Cultures that are individualistic are more focused on the “I” individual ¤ What is best for me ¤ Collectivistic orientation ¤ More interested in the well being of other ¤ Look for well-being of others Gender and self-concept ¤ Sex and Gender ¤ Sex = biological term (physiological) ¤ Gender = socially constructed learned behaviors (feminine vs. masculine) ¤ Gender Stereotypes ¤ Expectations ¤ Gender Expectations ¤ Androgynous ¤ Male and female traits ¤ If you can do both (adapt) you’ll be more successful in business/life Self-Fulfilling Prophecy ¤ Self-Fulfilling Prophecy ¤ Expectations we have of ourselves or that others have of us that help to create the conditions that lead us to act in predictable ways. ¤ Too many failure à bad for self-esteem ¤ No failures à inflated self-esteem ¤ A balance ¤ Inaccurate gap in self-perceptions ¤ “I’m going to have a terrible day” example ¤ Above-average effect ¤ Thinking we are better than the average person on almost every dimension available ¤ Texting while driving – we know its bad and don’t want others to do it but yet we do it Impression Management ¤ Impression Management ¤ Perceived self ¤ Presenting self ¤ These two don’t always match ¤ Facework (star) ¤ Verbal and nonverbal ways we act to maintain our presenting image