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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariel Hudson on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 181 at Arizona State University taught by Chakravadhanula, Farrokh, Konikoff in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biochemistry at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Lecture 2 – Cell hierarchy and homeostasis Terms to know: anatomy, physiology, tissue, organ, gland, basal metabolic rate, conformational homeostasis, regulatory homeostasis, endotherm, ectotherm, homeotherm, heterotherm Anatomy: study of an organism’s physical structure Physiology: study of how those physical structures function Tissue: a group of similar cells that function as a unit, there are four major kinds of tissues, connective, muscle, nervous and epithelial. Organ: a structure that serves a specialized function and consists of several tissues. Gland: a group of cells that secrete specific molecules or solutions. Basal Metabolic Rate: BMR is the rate of consumption of energy. Conformational Homeostasis: creates stability with the environment around the organism, for example, the antarctic rockfish maintains a body temperature similar to the water surrounding it. Regulatory Homeostasis: creates stability with the required internal state, for example, a dog’s body will maintain its temperature no matter if it is hot or cold outside. Endotherm: produce adequate heat to warm their own tissues. Ex, most animals and mammals Ectotherm: rely primarily on heat gained from the environment. Ex, most fish and amphibians Homeotherm: keep their body temperature constant. Mammals Heterotherm: allow their body temperature to rise or fall depending on environmental conditions. Ex, most freshwater fish Know the biological hierarchy. They are levels smallest → biggest Atomic/Molecular→ Cellular→ Tissue→ Organ→ Organ System→ Organism What are the four major types of human adult tissues? Connective, Muscle, Nervous, Epithelial Know the four types of Connective Tissue, and examples of each Loose: acts as a padding material, ex adipose, reticular tissue Dense: has collagen fibers and connects muscles, bones and organs, ex tendons and ligaments. Supporting: firm tissue that provides support and protection. Ex, bone, cartilage Fluid: their major function is transport, ex blood. What are the three types of muscle tissue? Which is under voluntary control? Skeletal Muscle: Voluntary control, long cells, attaches to bones and moves limbs when contracted. You choose when you wants limbs to move → voluntary. Cardiac Muscle: Involuntary control, branched cells, pumps blood throughout the body, think of heart. Cardiac=heart, the heart pumps blood. Smooth Muscle: Involuntary control, tapered cells, lines the walls of the digestive tract and the blood vessels. If you need help remembering this is involuntary control, just remember you cannot control how fast you digest your food. What does nervous tissue consist of? Neurons and supporting cells. The neurons are made up of dendrites connected to a cell body that leads to the axon which send electrical signals throughout the brain. What are the functions of epithelial tissue? Also know that it has polarity. It covers the outside of the body, lines the surface of organs, and may form glands. It forms an interface between the interior and exterior of an organ or organism and also provides protection and creates a barrier, regulating which materials pass across body surfaces. What is the relationship between animal size and BMR? Why? As animal size decreases, BMR (basal metabolic rate) increases because smaller animals’ mass use more energy per volume than bigger animals. What are the three general components of homeostatic systems? Give a brief description of what each does. 1. Sensor: indicates that an aspect of the environment has changed 2. Integrator: compares the sensor input with the set point to determine if a response to adapt with the change is necessary. 3. Effector: Changes parameter to restore the desired internal condition. How do humans thermoregulate? Know the homeostatic system components for mammalian thermoregulation, as discussed in class Yes, humans thermoregulate, they are endotherms (produce their own heat) and they are also homeotherms (maintain a constant body temperature)
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