Study Soup - ANTH 1001 Notes
Study Soup - ANTH 1001 Notes Anth 1001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rohini Brahmbhatt on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1001 at George Washington University taught by Professor O'Malley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/28/15
Anth 1001 Intro to Biological anthropology Syabus runthrough Buy textbook do readings bookstore Lab manual will be given 3 exams in lab sectionab multiple choice not cumulative exam all class period for exam na exam will be during nals week abs will be graded 20 points attendance participation submission of assignments basically 100 no separate lab nal Day 1 82514 Anthropoogy study of human kind study of nonhuma relatives and their relatives broken into 4sub eld 1 Cultural anth patterns of behavior that are shared learned and socially transmitted school spirit ice bucket challenge tshirts etc not just humans also in other animals not accepted by all anthropologists 2 Linguistic anth focus on how language changes over time and shapes documenting and preserving dying languages 3 Archaeology study of material culture products of human activity understanding what they did and didn t value use etc 4 Biological anth focuses on evolution of humans amp ancestors relatives understand relations to other animals a Sub disciplines i Paleoanthropology ii Skeletal biology amp osteology bones and joints iii Paleopathologyamp bio archaeology found a dead body in a digging site iv Forensic anthropology application criminal investigation vPrimatoogy apeschimps vi Human biology ampmedica anthropology 2 Biological anthropology a science controlled variables empirical science empirical unbiased feasible self correcting cumulative a Darwin Galapagos island nches b Primates chimpanzees c Hominids and human origin d Human evolution longevity birth anthropological perspectives on race Day 2 82714 1 History of evolution a As a digger back in the days what would you have done if you walked into dug and found large animal s bonesyou d sell it mistake it for a weapon or possibly sell it b Mythic origins i the potential origins of Cyclops myths came from elephant skulls by people who didn t know what elephants were in places where elephants didn t really live but their bones did ii History of evolutionary thought 1 Plato and Aristotle 5th amp 6th centuries bc a Aristotle promotes idea of organisms ranked in terms of importance and complexity blooded vs bloodless i Essentialism Plato s idea of immutability of natural world dolphins etc couldn t be changed they were what they were iiScala naturae Aristotle 395 ideas of great chain of being refer to top 1 2 Renaissance importance of understanding the past euro Exploration of world still a lot of belief in single creation biblical a Leonardo da vinci and Vesaliusfounder of modern anatomy study of human body by cutting dissecting cadavers rather than relying on ancient descriptions noted similarities in structure and function across organisms b Bishop james usher calculated time and date creation to be nightfall prior to oct 23 4004 bc 1650 cCarolud Linnaeus came up with binomial nomenclature homo sapiens genus species foundation of biological taxonomy believed species to be xed and immutable wrote systema naturae d Compte de buffon biogeography diff parts of the world have diff groups of animals and plants some populations have changed bc of local conditions e Georges cuvier believed species to be xed extinction is real and proponent of catastrophism natural disasters or massive extinction events that rid earth of life beieved that what happened next led to evolution f Willim paley natural theology order in the natural world was proof of designer s aka god handiwork watchmaker argument in book g JeanBaptiste Lamarck presented theory of evolution theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics an organism in its life experiences challenges like surviving a winter or reaching far leaves created some need AKA giraffes and long necks for reaching and that their offspring will survive long bc of long necks BUT he was wrong that individual organisms can acquire traits h Thomas Malthus essay on principle of population 1798 an unchecked population would grow too big and outgrow its supply of food i James hutton founder of modern geology uniformitarianism j Charles lyell ancient earth and slow change older fossils in lower strata kArasmus Darwin physician naturalist abolitionist dada of Darwin natural historythemed poems to point out some evolutionary leanings Richard owen suggested that humans evolved from sh but that progress was divinely guided humans and ape brain had lots of structural differences 1St a collaborator and friend later a critic and rival of Darwin m CHARLES DARWIN 18091882 failed student of medical school he loved beetles and wrote letters about them to family got unpaid internship on boatbeage w driver Fitzroy founder of meteorology darwin made a list 1 Reasons not to go re ect poorly on clergy wild adventurous schemes lastmin offer seems shy he was 3 l4th choicewhy didn t others want to go delay real ife settling poor accommodations excuse to change his profession and focus in life complete waste of time 2 STILL DECIDED TO GO iiBeagle experiences 1 No ghting minus a few btw Fitzroy and Darwin biggest one about slavery 2 Most time on land 3 Wrote book quotvoyage of beaglequot 4 Got to see 1St hand the natural disasters affecting land etc 5 Time on the Galapagos islands studied tortoises realized that the height of their shells related to their survival and environment 6 Back in England tried to continue researching n Alfred Russell Wallace not upper class school dropout when darwin was afraid to publish he saw Alfred had the same idea and presented his ideas DAY 3 9114 NO CLASS DAY 4 9314 lAlfred Russell Wallace 18231913 aWrote a paper on the same topic as Darwin who lost hope but was pushed by friends to publish joint papers i Darwin had more data had more credibility as a scientist Alfred believed Darwin should get the credit and knew Darwin deserved it he was also afraid of public rejection bc of idea b On the Origin of Species 1859 nally published i Darwin s 2 biggest ideas in book 1 Descent with modi cation evolution what happened 2 A process Natural selection how did it happen ii Natural selection constantly scouts out good and bad in nature ie Useful and useless 2 Natural Selection a 3 observations and 2 deductions i Observation 1 all organisms have potential for explosive growth ii Observation 2 in nature populations are ususally stable 1 Deduction 1 not all individuals that are born survive to leave descendants struggle for existence iii Observation 3 nature is full of variation shape of eyes temp producing fruit owers even a week earlier etc 1 Therefore some variations have to be favored and other disfavored in the process of natural selection Differential reproductive success how many offspring one can leave behind 3 conditions for natural selection to work i the traits must be to some degree inherited ii the traits in question must vary between individuals iii environment must exert some 39pressure or stress on population relative to the traits for natural selection to act Natural selection de ned i Differential reproductive success of individuals based on the speci c heritable traits ii As a consequence over multiple Generations 1 Some traits become more common than others in the population 2 Some traits become rare or disappear Evolution by natural selection i Descent w modi cation in populations change in frequency of a trait sin a population over mult generations ii Trait can be morphological physiological developmental behavioral iii KEY P0N7 individuals are subject to selection but only populations evolve iv Individuals species populations Evidence Darwin gave i Biogeography life arranged in diff parts of world V 1 The nches in the diff parts of the world diff features auks penguins In the extreme north and south are only similar in color not at all in structure Paleontology fossils 1 Even in his time it was known that older layers contained similar yet diff older versions of the same animal re ect evolutionary descent through time Embryology developing organisms in the womb 1 Similarities btw lots of organisms in early developmental stages 2 Darwin got into barnacles Morphology physical features of an organism vestigial structureshomology 1 Noticed a pattern of structures that were similar in very different animals same bones with changes in morphology on the exterior 2 Modi ed removed completely highly derived for particular purpose ight gliding in water etc 3 Vestigial structures show that they evolved python bone structure you ll see little relic femurs that haven t quite disappeared yet showing that they lost their limbs not never had them Arti cial structures removing what you wantdon t want in plantsanimals 1 Ex dog breeding etc f Key implications The living world is dynamic not static Shows continuity among very diff organisms despite lots of changes over time and space 1 Tree of life metaphor single trunk single common ancestor No need to invoke supernatural forces he wasn t trying to attack religion at all 1 Snow akes crystals hurricanes rock formations Ireland etc 2 Fossil record DNA etc can help prove that TRex was the ancestor of a bird as small as the hummingbird