I-O Psych Notes Week 12
I-O Psych Notes Week 12 PSYC 2544
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
I-O Psychology Notes Week 12 3/30/16 8:25 PM Rating Errors & Distortions Central tendency error • Raters choose midpoint on scale to describe performance when more extreme point is pre appropriate Leniency-severity error • Raters are unusually easy OR harsh in their ratings Halo error • Generally favorable or unfavorable evaluations • Same rating is assigned to an individual on a series of dimensions, causing the ratings all to be similar; lack or identification or strengths and weaknesses • A “halo” surrounds the ratings Serial position errors • The tendency to remember information firs (primacy effect) or last (recency effect) Contrast errors • When a rater compares against other individuals instead of a set of standards Rater Training • Some distortions (errors) may be corrected through training • Administrative training o Important for uncommon rating systems (e.g. BARS) or if more structural characteristics are deficient • Psychometric training o Makes taters aware of common rating errors in hopes of reducing such errors Frame of Reference Training Based on the assumption that rater needs context for providing rating Basic steps: • 1) Provide information about multidimensional nature of performance • 2) Ensure raters understand meaning of scales anchors • 3) Engage in practice rating exercises of standard performance • 4) Provide feedback on practice exercise Reliability & Validity of Performance Ratings Reliability • Currently the subject of lively debate • Inter-rater reliability considered poor but this isn’t necessarily bad considering each rater relies on a different perspective Validity • Depends on manner by which rating scales were conceived and developed Social and Legal Context of Performance Evaluation Motivation to rate • Suggestion that raters use process as a means to an end, either personal or organizational • Performance appraisal as a goal-directed activity with three stakeholders Rater goals • Task performance • Interpersonal • Strategic • Internalized Ratee goals • Information gathering • Information dissemination Motivation to Rate Organizational goals • Between-person uses • Within-person uses • Systems-maintenance uses Goal Conflict • When single system is used to satisfy multiple goals from which different stakeholders, rater must choose which goal to satisfy before assigning a rating • Possible solutions o Use multiple performance evaluation systems o Obtain involvement if stakeholders in developing the system o Reward supervisors for accurate ratings Performance Feedback • If employees don’t know how they’re doing, there’s no way for them to improve their performance. Feedback is important. • Problematic when same information is used for multiple purposes • Feedback (especially negative) should be stretched over several sessions; given over multiple periods of time • “Praise-criticism-praise sandwich” – here’s what you’re doing well, here’s where you’re doing poorly, here’s what you’re doing well statement Employee more likely to accept negative feedback if he/she believes: • Supervisor has sufficient “sample” of subordinate’s actual behavior (can provide specific examples) • Supervisor and subordinate agree on subordinate’s job duties • Supervisor and subordinate agree on definition of good and poor performance • Supervisor focuses on ways to improve performance “Destructive” Criticism • Feedback that is cruel, sarcastic, and offensive • Usually general rather than specific • Often directed toward personal characteristics of employee • Leads to anger, tension, and resentment on part of employee • Apology best to repair damage of such criticism Implementing 360 Degree Feedback • Ensure anonymity of sources • Rater and ratee should jointly identify the evaluator • Use for developmental and growth purposes • Train information sources and those giving feedback • Follow up feedback session with regular opportunities for progress assessment Performance Ratings • Trait ratings – a warning: do NOT use a rating scale based on personal characteristics or personality • Task-based ratings o Effectiveness of employee in accomplishing duties o Most easily defended in court Perceptions of Fairness in Performance Measurement Factors associated with fairness measurement: • Appraisal frequency “+” related to fairness perceptions • Joint planning with supervisor to eliminate weaknesses enhances fairness perception • Supervisor’s knowledge of duties of person being measured • Supervisor’s knowledge of actual performance of person being rated Performance Evaluation and the Law Ford Motor Company and its forced distribution rating system • Evaluators were required to place managers into performance categories based on predetermined percentages • Ford sued by managers and eventually paid over $10 million to litigants Recommendations regarding substance of appraisal criteria: • Should be objective rather than subjective • Should be job related or based on job analysis • Should be based on behaviors rather than traits • Should be within the control of the ratee • Should relate to specific functions, not global assessments • Should be communicated to the employee Appraisal procedures • Should be standardized and uniform for all employees within a job group • Should be formally communicated to employees • Should provide notice of performance deficiencies and of opportunities to correct them • Should provide access for employees to review appraisal results • Should use multiple, diverse, and unbiased raters • Should require thorough and consistent documentation across raters that includes specific examples of performance based on personal knowledge • Should establish a system to detect potentially discriminatory effects or abuses of the system overall Motivation What is motivation? Motivation x Ability + Situational constraints or opportunities = Performance. Motivation concerns conditions responsible for variations is: • Direction • Intensity • Duration of behavior Motivation Theories Maslow’s Need Theory (5 Levels) Physiological needs • Basic needs like food and water Security needs • Need to produce a secure environment Love or social needs • Desire to be accepted by others Esteem needs • Being respected for accomplishments or capabilities Self-actualization • Desire to develop capabilities to the fullest Two-factor theory (Herzberg, 1966) Two-factor theory – Herzberg • 2 basic needs, not 5 • Needs are independent (not hierarchical) • 1) Hygiene needs o Maslow’s physical and security needs • 2) Motivator needs o Maslow’s social, esteem, and self-actualization needs Self-determination Theory Intrinsic motivation needs • Autonomy • Competence • Relatedness Vroom’s VIE Theory (Expectancy Theory) • Valence: Strength of person’s preference for particular outcome (example: motivation to get a promotion) • Instrumentality: Perceived relationship between performance and attainment of a certain outcome • Expectancy: perceived relationship between effort and performance Equity Theory Equity Theory: individuals look at world in terms of comparative inputs and outcomes • Compare their inputs and outputs to those of “comparison others” Goal Setting Theory Goal setting theory • Notion of goal as a motivational force • Distinction between goal acceptance and goal commitment • Feedback loop important between knowledge of results and intermediate stages • Control theory o Based on principle of feedback loop o Assumes individuals compare a standard to an actual outcome and adjust their behavior to bring outcome into agreement with a standard Control Theories and the Concept of Self-Regulation Self regulation is compatible with control theory Work Design Theory Job characteristics model • Skill variety • Task identity • Task significance • Autonomy • Task feedback Trait Components of Motivation Motivation and Personality • Consistent relationships exist between personality characteristics and performance motivation • Neuroticism negatively related to performance motivation • Conscientiousness positively related to performance motivation Self-Efficacy in Modern Motivation Theory Self-efficacy is a belief in one’s capacity to perform a specific task or reach a specific goal • Developed and increased by mastery experiences, modeling, social persuasion, physiological states Overview Summary • Ability x Motivation + Situation = Performance • Motivation Theories Motivating Employees Motivation in the Workplace • Organizations can impact the motivation of employees • Nearly all behavior is at least partially determined by individual motivation • Every topic in I-O directly or indirectly involves motivation Antecedents to Goals • External influences – distal (far away) or proximal (close) • Person influences – distal (far away) or proximal (close) Proximal External Influences Work characteristics • Motivational – work complexity o Job characteristics o Meet needs/values • Social – interpersonal aspects o Basic need – positive social interaction o Pressure to conform o Teams o Others’ goals are contagious o Coworkers and equity o Social loafing o Customers/clients o Society • Contextual – physical and environmental o Work conditions o Equipment 3/30/16 8:25 PM 3/30/16 8:25 PM
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