Soc m138 intro
Soc m138 intro Sociology M138
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddie816 on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology M138 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Timmermans in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 540 views. For similar materials see Death, suicide and trauma in Sociology at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
3/30/16 ● Dying in the US ○ Life expectancy increase to 77.8 years ■ Better health conditions in the 20th century as a potential explanation ■ Increased access to therapy to help avoid premature death among infants ● Death remains problematic ○ 2.4mln people die per year, 75% of those are over 65yrs old ■ Most deaths are from prolonged illness ■ 70% of those die in medical institutions ○ 1990: patient self determination act ■ Patient is given the right to make last requests upon checking into the hospital ● Intent is to increase communication bw doctor and patient ● The good death ○ US death Cultural Script a widely shared scenario of what we consider a “good death” to be (elements and components of a good death) ○ Example: ■ peaceful , pain free, surrounded by family, continuity of living a lasting statement, not a burden for others etc. ■ The notebook: ● A couple who finds each other again, dies together holding hands on their deathbed ● Where does this idea come from? ○ The sixties ■ Death: phenomenon that death should be in the hospital ● 1977 dramatic increase from the 1900s: 70% of patients die in hospitals ○ Critiques ■ Gorer: pornography and death ● Death is glorified in the media ■ Feifel: the meaning of death ● Western culture today denies death (ieattempt to prolong life through medical intervention) ■ Ariesthe hour of our death ● Idea of a tame death ○ Humans engage in rituals in an attempt to acknowledge that death is inevitable and a normal stage of life, people gather as a community and attempt to reconcile grievances such as through giving last wishes and apologizing to each other ○ ExampleDeath Macabre ■ Death is inevitable ■ We need to make sure that we live a moral life ■ Death is a communal event 3/30/16 ● 19th century: dying patients are isolated with medicalization (hospital) > attempt are made to explain death in scientific terms ■ Glaser and Strauss: awareness of dying (findings) ● Patients are abandoned in hospitals and are uninformed about their medical conditions ○ Once the patient is discovered to be dying ■ Nurses avoid patients ■ Nurses stop communicating with patients ● Patients are treated but are not told what treatment was for ● I.e. treatment is supposedly for arthritis when in fact it is for cancer ● Patients are lied to ○ Not told of their condition ○ Reasoning is that once the patient is told that he is dying, it makes it seem as if the doctor has given up ● Four awareness contexts ○ Closed awareness ■ Physician knows that patient is dying but patient does not ○ Suspicion awareness ■ Patient begins to become suspicious of his condition through possible medical intervention (suspicion of treatment) ○ Mutual pretense ■ Both patient and doctor know that the patient is dying but neither discusses the topic ● The doctor knows that the patient knows ○ Open awareness ■ Both patient and doctor know that the patient is dying and they both openly communicate about the topic ■ KublerRoss (findings) ● 5 stages of grief ○ Denial ○ Anger ○ Bargaining ■ Usually to god (I’ll do this or stop doing that) ○ Depression ○ Acceptance (the ideal stage) becomes part of the cultural script ■ Mitford: american way of death 3/30/16 ● Finds that the funeral industry is corrupt as workers attempt to take advantage of grieving families by offering unnecessary and expensive services ○ I.e.casquet is sold to a family although they are cremating their loved one ○ Social movements: death with dignity ■ Hospice care: a new way of dying through religious practices (a place where people go to die in comfort), not meant to provide the right to die/help the dying process but make death more comfortable (after an understanding that medical intervention can no longer be of any use) ● ieSaunders: St. Christopher's Hospice ○ Focus on cancer patients, pain management, diet and spiritualreligious care ● Saunders and Ross ○ New Haven Hospice ■ Right to die movement ● Gave people the right to withdraw or withhold life support ● National hemlock society ○ Derek humphry: final exit ■ Helps patients learn how to die ○ Jack kevorkian: suicide apparatus ■ Apparatus for lethal dose of medication ● Oregon: death dignity act of 1994 ● Patient self determination act ■ Commonalities between movements ● Power on the method of death is taken from the medical field and given it to patients ■ How realistic? (Carr) ● Pain reduction is associated with SES ○ Those with higher education have an 11% decrease in pain during death ● Racial differences in life planning ○ Those who are wealthy and white, are more likely to plan their death (wills), than the poor ● SES disparities in informal end of life planning ● Medicare cost in last 6 months of life: $20k whites, $27k blacks and $32k latinos ○ Although medical breakthroughs have helped to increase life expectancy, minorities do not benefit from these gains
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