Indian Wars HY 325-001
Popular in US World Power to 1898
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Indian Wars and Origins of a Colonial State 0 PostCivil War western expansion full power and support of the federal government 0 Focused on the removal of Natives from western land gt open it up for white settlers 0 Western expansion became a primary focus of federal policy 0 Goals free land up for white settlers free land up for railroad companies I Economic and infrastructure expansion 0 Western expansion met by conflict wthe Natives gt federal army vs Plains Indians Indian Wars during the Civil War 0 Homestead Act 1862 gt settlers could get 168 acres if they improved the land after 5 years 0 improve build houses grown crops ranching farms gt economic importance 0 Wars between the US army and the Indians occurred during the preCivil War years 18505 but intensified in the postCivil War years 0 Main conflicts during the Civil War Great Sioux Uprising and the Sand Creek Massacre 0 Great Sioux Uprising 1862 I Dakota Sioux had signed a treaty where the ceded land for money I US had failed to pay the Sioux I Sioux began an uprising by pushing whites off the land since it was unpaid for I Leaders of the uprising were arrested tried and hung I Result Sioux driven from land MinnesotaDakota area sent to reservations 0 Sand Creek Massacre 1864 I Colorado Cheyenne and Arapaho vs US Army I 1858 gold found on Native s land gt whites encroached and tried to push the Natives out I Tension grew between the Natives and the whites o Negotiation noncombatant Natives were sent to a encampment on federal land that was supposed to be guarded to the army I 11291868 Colorado cavalry attacked the Natives at the encampment o Cavalry led by Col John Chivington o Zealous hater of Native Americans 0 Total Natives killed 270 mostly women and children Indian Wars postCivil War o PostCivil War federal government could put its full attention back on western expansion and devote more forces to the removal of Natives o 1869 1st transcontinental railroad completed 0 Allowed for quicker and easier travel 0 Increased the number of white settlers to the west I Meant that more conflicts arose between Natives and whites o 1871 Congress eliminates the treaty system 0 Treaties between the US govt and Natives became null o Natives were thus denied recognition of being a sovereign govtnation o Natives out west obstacle for railroad companies western expansion 0 Goal of RR companies destroy the Native s system of living to push them off their land I Did this by mass killing of buffalo o buffalo was a source of cultural and economic vitality for the Natives o buffalotrain crashes damaged the trains which cost companies money 0 RR companies established and encouraged buffalo hunting trips 0 Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 o Sioux and Cheyenne vs US army gt Native victory o Leaders of the Natives Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse 0 location Black Hills of the Dakotas I battle over Native s defense of ownership of the Black Hills region 0 George Custer led the US army gt Custer and his regiment were killed 0 1886 Apache surrendered to the army leader was Geronimo 0 1890s most Native tribes had been defeated and sent to Indian Reservations 0 End of Indian Wars 0 Native land that the govt took over was opened up for white settlement 0 Impact of warsremoval on Natives I Despair hopelessness I Spiritual revival to make sense of cultural and social changes 0 Ghost Dance founded by Wavoka o Practicing it was thought to be a way to restore Native ways and make the whites disappear o Called for abstinence from alcohol and for nonviolence 0 US army saw Ghost Dance as something that could inspire an uprising 0 Ghost Dance and its practitioners were considered dangerous I Ex Sitting Bull leader of the Sioux practiced the Ghost Dance and in December of 1890 he was arrested and killed Two weeks later US army went to Wounded Knee where the Sioux were camping out and massacred the Natives Total killed 300350 I Battle of Wounded Knee last of the Indian Wars Reforms o Reformers Red Progressives o Reforms focused on the Natives way of living in context of reservation life 0 Reservations were seen as obstacles to reform I They encouraged communal land ownership which helped solidify a common sense of identity and community among the Natives which allowed them to hold onto and share they culture o 1869 Bureau of Indian Affairs established gt watch for mismanagement of Indian affairs 0 Richard Henry Pratt gt reform the Natives via education and assimilation o quotdestroy the Indian save the man 0 Carlisle Indian School 1879 see below 0 1882 Indian Rights Association 0 Worked to reform the federal government s relationship with Natives o Encouraged Natives to assimilate into American lifestyle and culture 0 Reform movement had to two paths 1 change the reservation system 2 educate the Natives 0 Change the reservation system I Dawes Act of 1887 o Dismantle the reservations and divide them into individual family farms 0 Meant to destroy communal land ties and create incentive for individual ownershipwork ethic I Individual land ownership was more in resemblance of American farming so individual land ownership was a way to speed up assimilation o All extra reservation land was sold white settlers 0 Led to drastic reduction in the amount of land that Natives owned and it allowed more Americans to settle out west 0 Educate the Natives I Achieved through boarding schools I Carlisle Indian School 1879 gt Richard Henry Pratt o Boarding school for Native Americans to be educated in American ways 0 Forced assimilation gt change in clothing language name 0 Focused on visual markers of assimilation dress hair etc o Postschool issues 0 Americanized Natives seen as not American enough by whites o Americanized Natives seen as too American by their tribe Legacy of Native American lifeIndian Wars 0 Nostalgia for frontier experience gt see noble savage in natural setting Indian Wars 0 Buffalo Bill Wild West gt shows about frontier life and Native Americans 0 Way for people to see the frontier experience I Way to see the past come to life 0 Natives were employed as performers o Reaffirmed white supremacy over Natives I Indian war reenactments often distorted the truth to make the US army seem better than the Natives Key Words 0 Homestead Act 0 Great Sioux Uprising 0 Sand Creek Massacre o Cheyenne o Arapaho 0 Chief Black Kettle 0 John Chivington 0 Battle of Little Big Horn 0 Sitting Bull 0 Crazy Horse 0 General George Custer o Nez Perce 0 Apache 0 Ghost Dance 0 Wovoka o Wounded Knee 0 Richard Henry Pratt 0 Indian Rights Association 0 Dawes Act 0 Carlisle Indian School 0 Buffalo Bill s Wild West
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