Second Industrial Revolution
Second Industrial Revolution HY 325-001
Popular in US World Power to 1898
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Second Industrial Revolution 0 Big idea from 1870 and 1900 US saw dramatic change in economics transportation and living 0 New inventions manufacturing increased Growth in industrial capitalism PostCivil War dramatic industrial growth 1894 US was world s leading industrial producer Urbanization fed off of and aided in the growth of industrial production I Rural population attracted to cities for job opportunities I Global migration gt most immigrants ES Europe went to East Coast 0 Rise of organized labor unions gt organized for workers rights like better payhours 0000 New Technology gt transportation revolution cheaper goods exports increase changes in living 0 Railroads 0 RR building began in early 18005 postCivil War RR construction increased 0 1869 transcontinental RR was completed 0 RR projects were subsidized by the federal government I Also given tax aidincentives to ease the burden of construction costs Federal and state governments gave RR companies land to build on 0 RR construction boosted the steel and iron industries I Rise of more available and cheaper steel more RR track parts could be made more RR lines could be laid O 0 Steam engines 0 Engines became smaller and more efficient 0 Less reliance on coal and more on steam less costly to transport goods I Led to increase in exports which boosted the US economy 0 CrossAtlantic boat traffic increased 0 Steel 0 Bessemer Process gt 1856 Henry Bessemer I Cheap production of steel from molten iron I Steel was sought after more than iron because it is stronger and could be made more cheaply I Steel production increased which led to a rapid rise of the steel industry I Bessemer Process and RR construction went handinhand o More steel more RR parts more RR lines laid 0 Need for more RR lines need for more steel gt Bessemer Process 0 Andrew Carnegie gt steel industry Carnegie Steel I Made steel the dominant US industry I Vertical integration own all steps of production to lower cost of production I Attempted to cut costs to save money gt kept labor wages low 0 Oil 0 Titusville Pennsylvania gt oil found in 1860 I Led to minioil rush to strike it rich I crude oil could be used in many ways was economically valuable 0 Oil refineries had low startup costs so many refineries sprung up 0 John D Rockefeller I Standard Oil Company I Horizontal integration own all factories in one step of the production process 0 Electric Lights 0 Thomas Edison gt inventor of incandescent light bulb Wizard of Menlo Park 0 Factories could now run 247 I Changed labor and factories structure gt change in work lifepace I Factories open longer production increases and more profit made 0 Change in city life gt people could stroll out at night allure of the city s night beauty 0 Change in how people live gt could now do activities at night idea of night work shifts o Telegraph 0 Samuel Morse 0 Access to instantaneous information o Impacted social and economic spheres I Social keep up to date wthings I Economic now exact stock and commodity prices 0 Went hand in hand wRR construction I Telegraph lines laid along RR lines 0 Communication revolution 0 Telephone 0 Alexander Graham Bell 0 More private than telegramstelegraph 0 Instant access to info 0 Communication Revolution Results of transportation and communication revolutions 0 Changes in transportation and communication impacted cities and peoples livelihood 0 US became more closely linked together gt break down of tradition barriers to unity 0 Consequences of changes 0 Owner vs labor relations 0 Immigration 0 US as an industrial power and translating that into global power Key Words 0 Bessemer Process 0 Andrew Carnegie 0 Vertical Integration 0 John D Rockefeller 0 Standard Oil Horizontal Integration Thomas Edison Samuel B Morse Alexander Graham Bell