New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Anatomy and physiology Set 3 of 13

by: Tarn Notetaker

Anatomy and physiology Set 3 of 13 A103

Marketplace > Republic Polytechnic > Natural Sciences and Mathematics > A103 > Anatomy and physiology Set 3 of 13
Tarn Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Covers topic on: - Bones - Types of Bones - Bone Cells - Function of Bones - Types of Fractures - Phases - Ossification - Bone healing
Anatomy and Physiology
Felicia Liew
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Anatomy and Physiology

Popular in Natural Sciences and Mathematics

This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tarn Notetaker on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to A103 at Republic Polytechnic taught by Felicia Liew in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at Republic Polytechnic.

Popular in Natural Sciences and Mathematics


Reviews for Anatomy and physiology Set 3 of 13


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/13/15
Bones:    ­ Bones are organs  ­ Strength of bones  ­ Ground substance  ­ Hydroxyapatite crystals (inorganic substance) → resistant to  compression  ­ Collagen fibers (organic substances) → resistant to stretch  ­ They are composed of multiple tissues  ­ Osseous tissue (cells and extracellular matrix)  ­ Vascular tissue  ­ Lymphatic tissue  ­ Adipose tissue  ­ Nervous tissue  ­ All bones store  ­ Inorganic salts: Ca​ 3​PO​4​; Ca(OH)​ 2​CaCO​ 3  2+​ ­​ +​ 2­ ­ Ions: Mg​ ; F; K​ ; SO​4​                             Types of bone tissues:    ­ Cortical/ compact bone  ­ Forms the harder outer layer  ­ Covered with a thin periosteum  ­ Basic structural unit  ­ Osteon  ­ Concentric lamellae  ­ Haversian canal  ­ Lacunae (contains osteocytes)  ­ Trabecular/ Spongy/ Cancellous bone  ­ Forms the inner layer  ­ Less compact than cortical bone  ­ Contains bone marrow (red or yellow) highly vascular  ­ Basic unit  ­ Trabeculae, containing the bone cells                                        Bone cells:    ­ Osteocytes  ­ Mature osteoblasts  ­ Regulate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts  ­ Does the bone building  ­ Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix  ­ Osteoblasts  ­ Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (bone formation/ growth)  ­ Can be found in the periosteum (tissue around bones: the sheath of  connective tissue that surrounds all bones except those at joint) and  endosteum (lining of bones: a layer of vascular tissue lining the inside of  some bones)  ­ Builds new bone  ­ Synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other components needed  to build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue  ­ Initiate calcification  ­ Osteoclasts  ­ Perform osteolysis (breaking down of bone via chemical reactions)  ­ Important in bone remodelling, as well as in releasing the stored calcium in  bones into the blood stream  ­ Giant, multinucleated cells, dissolve bone matrix and released stored  minerals (osteolysis)  ­ Does the bone recycling  ­ Osteogenic cells  ­ Unspecialized cells  ­ Only bone cells undergo cell division  ­ Resulting cells develop into osteoblasts  ­ Note: Bone building and bone recycling must be balanced. The bone cells are  derived from stem cells that produce macrophages              Types of bones:  ­ Flat bone    ­ Thin curvy bone with the outer layer being the compact bones.  ­ The inner layer being spongy bones  ­ Short bone    ­ Cube shaped bone with a thin layer of compact bone covering the spongy  interior  ­ Sesamoid bone    ­ Bones embedded in tendons which increase leverage of the muscles  ­ Irregular bone    ­ Non uniform shape consisting of thin layers of compact bones  ­ Surrounds a spongy interior  ­ Long bone    ­ Characterised by a shaft, diaphysis and epiphysis (a round head at each end)                                          Functions of bones:  ­ Support  ­ Large, heavy leg bones support the body against pull of gravity  ­ The mandible (jawbone) supports the teeth  ­ Other bones support various organs and tissues  ­ Protection  ­ Skeletons protect organs: skull (brain), vertebral column (spinal cord), and rib  cage (heart and lungs)  ­ Ribs and sternum (breastbone) protect the lungs and heart  ­ Vertebrae protect the spinal cord  ­ Movement  ­ Hands and foot bones permit flexible body movement (joints­to provide  flexibility)  ­ Skeletal muscles use the bones as levers to move the body  ­ Acts as reservoir for minerals  ­ All bones store inorganic calcium and phosphorous salts  ­ 99% of the body’s calcium is stored in bone  ­ 85% of the body’s phosphorus is stored in bone  ­ Adipose tissue is found in the marrow of certain bones  ­ Hematopoiesis (blood formation)  ­ Flat bones of skull, ribs, and breastbone contain red bone marrow, which  manufactures blood cells  ­ Blood cell formation  ­ All  blood cells are made in the marrow of certain bones    Vinegar  ​ akes bones:  ­ Spongy  ­ Can be cut easily  ­ Hollow on the inside    Bleach ​ makes bones:  ­ Brittle  ­ Can be broken by hand    Hyaline Cartilage:  ­ Contains no nerves and blood vessels  ­ Joint capsule is attached to the whole circumference of the articular end of each  bone              Types of fractures:  ­ Greenstick fracture    ­ Incomplete fracture  ­ Bone is bent  ­ Occurs most often in children  ­ Transverse fracture    ­ Broken piece of bone is right angle to the bone’s axis  ­ Comminuted fracture    ­ Bone breaks into several pieces  ­ Oblique fracture    ­ When a break has a curved or a sloped pattern              ­ Buckle fracture    ­ Ends are driven into each other  ­ Pathological fracture    ­ Caused by a disease  that weakens the bones  ­ Stress fracture    ­ Hairline crack                                    Phases:    1. Reactive  ­ When a bone fracture, causes bleeding  ­ Blood vessels constrict, stopping any further bleeding  ­ Blood cells form a blood clot, called hematoma  ­ Cells within the blood clot degenerate and die  ­ Phagocytic cells clean the dead cells away  ­ Fibroblast migrates into site and begins proliferation  2. Reparative    ­ Days after fracture, cells of the periosteum duplicate and transform  ­ Cell proximal (closest) to the fracture gap develop into chondroblasts which  form hyaline cartilage  ­ Cells distal (further from) the fracture gap develop into osteoblasts which form  woven bone  ­ Fibroblasts within the granulation tissue develop into chondroblasts which  also form hyaline cartilage  ­ Two new tissues grow in size until they unite with their counterparts from  other parts of the fracture until the gap is bridged (by the hyaline cartilage and  woven bone), restoring some of its original strength  ­ Next is replacement of the hyaline cartilage + woven bone with lamellar bone  → known as endochondral ossification.  ­ Periosteum is a membrane that covers the outer surface of all bones other  than the joints of the long bones  ­ Endosteum lines the inner surface of all bones  3. Remodeling  ­ Maturation of wound healing  ­ Unnecessary vessels are formed in the granulation tissue  ­ Removed by apoptosis  ­ Type 3 collagen replaced by Type 1 collagen  ­ Phase last from 3 weeks to 12 months  Granulation Tissue:  ­ New connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that forms on the surfaces of a would  during the healing process  ­ Grows from the base of a wound and is able to fill wounds of almost any size      Endochondral Ossification:    ­ One of two essential processes of fetal development  ­ Development of mammalian skeletal system  ­ Bone tissue replaces hyaline cartilage, forming all bones below the skull except for  the clavicles (collar bone)  ­ Before birth, the primary center of ossification happens  ­ At the time of birth, the secondary center of ossification happens  ­ Cartilage between the primary and secondary ossification centers is called  epiphyseal  ­ Continues to form a new cartilage, which is replaced by bone. This increases the  length of the bone  ­ Steps    1.   ­ As the cartilage enlarges through appositional and interstitial growth,  chondrocyte near the center of the shaft increase greatly in size  ­ The matrix is reduced to a series of small structs that soon begin to  calcify  ­ The enlarged chondrocytes then die and disintegrate, leaving cavities  within the cartilage  2.   ­ Blood vessels grow around the edges of the cartilage and the cells of  the perichondrium convert to osteoblasts  ­ The shaft of the cartilage then becomes ensheathed in a superficial  layer of bone  3.   ­ Blood vessels penetrate the cartilage and invade the central region  ­ Fibroblasts migrating with the blood vessels differentiate into  osteoblasts and begin producing spongy bone at a primary ossification  center  ­ Bone formation then spreads along the shaft toward both ends  4.   ­ Remodeling occurs as growth continues creating a marrow cavity  ­ The bone of the shaft becomes thicker and the cartilage near each  epiphysis is replaced by shafts of bone  ­ Further growth involves increases in both length and diameter  5.     ­ Formation of articular cartilage  ­ Formation of epiphyseal plate  ­ Both structure consist of hyaline cartilage  ­ Capillaries and osteoblasts migrate into the epiphyses to crease  secondary ossification centers  ­ Each epiphysis is filled with spongy bone  ­ Over time the articular cartilage will reduce to a thin superficial layer                                      Bone healing:  ­ There are three stages    1. Inflammation  ­ Soon after a fracture occurs, a hematoma forms at the injury site  ­ Macrophages and inflammatory leukocytes move into the damaged area to  scavenge debris and begin producing the pro­inflammatory agents that initiate  healing  2. Soft Callus  ­ Inflammation triggers cell division and the growth of new blood vessels  ­ Among the new cells, chondrocytes secrete collagen and proteoglycans,  creating fibrocartilage that forms the soft callus  3. Hard Callus  ­ Through endochondral ossification and direct bone formation, woven bone  replaces the soft callus  ­ Creating a hard callus around the broken fragments of bone  4. Remodeling  ­ Over time, mechanically strong, highly organized cortical bone replaces the  weaker, disorganized woven bone  ­ Because it is continually remodeled, bone is the only tissue to heal without a  scar      Other terms:  ­ Woven bone (primary bone tissue): Temporary and is eventually converted to  lamellar bone   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.