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Chapter Five

by: Michelle Hague

Chapter Five ISS 210

Michelle Hague

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Society and the Individual
Dr. Garcia
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Hague on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Garcia in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.


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Date Created: 11/13/15
Social Problems Chapter 5 Profile of the US Population  US has 3 largest population in the world, increasing  1 in 5 householders is aged 65 or older  63% (2/3) of the US population is Non-Hispanic White  1 in 8 Americans is foreign born (12.5%)  More Latinos in US than the total population of Canada  Hispanics, largest minority group (immigration, fertility rates) Median Household Income (2013) 1. Asians: $67,065 2. Non-Hispanic Whites: $58,270 3. Hispanics: $40,968 4. Blacks: $34,598 Wealth Inequality (2011)  Median Net Worth 1. Non-Hispanic Whites: $110,500 2. Asians: $89,339 3. Latinos: $7,683 4. Blacks: $6,314 Poverty  In 2013, 41.5% of all in poverty were Non-Hispanic White (compared to 62.4% of total population)  Number of people who are poor are white, odds are greater as a person of color to be poor than white (3x more likely) 2013 Household Poverty Rates 1. Blacks: 27.2% 2. Hispanic: 23.5% 3. Asians: 10.5% 4. Non-Hispanic Whites: 9.6% Highest Rate of Unemployment (Total: 7.4%) 1. Blacks: 13.1% 2. American Indian: 12.8% Institutional Discrimination  Housing, Education, Employment, Income (political system, police system) Health Inequalities  White men live approximately 6 years longer than Black men  White women live approximately 5 years longer than Black women (11 & a half years longer than Black men) New Immigration  1820-1924: waves from northern & southern Europe  Immigration Act of 1924 1. Restrictive quotas on all southern & Eastern Europeans 2. Prohibited Asians excepts Filipinos 3. Mexican Americans exempt until 1930 in response to Great Depression  Hart-Cellar Act of 1965 1. Abolished national quotas 2. Set criteria based on family reunification & occupational skills  90% of today’s immigrants are from non-European countries  12.9% of population is foreign-born  1 million immigrants annually  2.5 M immigrants enter US illegally each year but number is declining  Estimated 11.5 M illegal immigrants in US today  Approximately 80% are Latinos (2/3 from Mexico)  Settlement patterns: Big 5 (CA, NY, IL, TX, FL)  Minorities constitute the majority: (HI, NM, CA, TX, Washington, D.C.)  CA holds nearly half of US Latino population  Latinos expected to surpass whites in CA by 2025 & be absolute majority by 2040.  Minority-Majority cities: NY, LA, Chicago, Houston, Detroit, & Dallas Immigration & Increasing Diversity  37% of US population is Non-White  Racial minorities are increasing faster than Whites  Latinos & Asians are growing more than 10x the pace of Whites  25% of all those under 18 are Latino  More than half of all children (under 18) will be non-white by 2023  Fertility rate in US currently @ 2.1 (replacement) 1. 2.9 Latinos 2. 1.9 Asian & African Americans 3. 1.8 Whites  2042: Non-Whites expected to exceed the White population in size Consequences of New Immigration  Do immigrants take jobs? 1. The immigrant effect on labor is split 2. Unskilled workers from Latin America & Caribbean depress opportunities of native low-status workers, especially African Americans 3. Wages of lowest 15% of workforce (less than H.S. degree) about 5% less because of competition of immigrants 4. Highly trained professionals & managers from India, China, & Philippines fill job vacancies 5. 15% of healthcare workers are foreign born 6. Engineers & scientific workers, especially IT fields 7. Immigrants more likely to be self-employed & start businesses, which strengthens local economies  Drain on Society’s Resources? 1. Short run, immigrants consume more in public services & benefits than they pay in taxes 2. Children in public school systems 3. Low-skilled jobs mean lower taxes 4. Long run, immigrants are a good investment for society 5. Immigrants pay $80,000 more in taxes than they receive in benefits  Blur racial lines or increase tensions? 1. Fear & tension increases during economic downturns 2. Heightened sense of competition among racial minorities 3. Clustering blurs national reality (“They’re taking over”) Anti-Immigrant Sentiment  2013: 939 Hate Groups  18 in MI  CA (77), TX (57), FL (58), GA (50) have highest numbers  Nativism- (anti-immigrant backlash)  2012: 38 Nativist Extremist Groups Immigration & Agency  Human agency- people cope with, adapt to, & change their social situations to meet their needs  Ethnic Identity or Assimilation? Immigrant adaptation depends on: 1. The immigrant generation (i.e. first or second) 2. Level in ethnic hierarchy on arrival 3. What stratum of US society absorbs them 4. The degree to which they are part of a family network (Immigrants who move to US have 4 options: ) 1. Assimilate as quickly as possible (forcible) 2. Develop an adversarial stance towards the dominant society 3. Resist acculturation by focusing on ethnic ties 4. Adopt a bicultural pattern Summary  New immigration is having 3 effects: 1. An increased bifurcation between the haves & have-nots 2. Increased racial diversity 3. Heightened tension among racial & ethnic groups


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