GLBL 210 Notes 3/28/16-3/30/16
GLBL 210 Notes 3/28/16-3/30/16 GLBL 210
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GLBL 210 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Jonathan Weiler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Global Issues in Global Studies at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
GLBL 210 Notes 3/28/16-3/30/16 3/28/16 - Key concepts: o Universal Declaration of Human Rights o International Bill of Human Rights o Humanitarian Intervention o Responsibility to Protect (R2P) o Women’s rights o American exceptionalism - “The Story of Human Rights” Video: o Human rights: rights people have simply because they are humans Apply to everyone, everywhere Universal o 30 human rights List found in Universal Declaration of Human Rights o Idea of human rights determined by Cyrus the Great o Natural law: laws that people naturally follow without necessarily being told to Those in power try to threaten them o UN created to reaffirm and protect human rights Agreed on Universal Declaration of Human Rights under Eleanor Roosevelt - FDR’s 4 Fundamental Freedoms: o Freedom of speech o Freedom of worship o Freedom from want o Freedom from fear - Atlantic Charter: o Statement by Allied powers o Allies fighting for universal human rights standard But Britain wished to keep control over colonial empires - UN created in 1945 at end of WWII: o Predecessor organization= League of Nations o Goal= provide single institution for creating and enforcing universal standards o Eleanor Roosevelt drove creation of Universal Declaration of Human Rights o Tried to include scholars, leaders, etc., from different backgrounds to create most universally accepted ideas o Document officially created Dec 1948 o Universal Declaration is not a law so has no way to enforce it legally o Document understood to be aspirational- no one thought it would create immediate major change o UN has passed some Human Rights conventions that are legally enforced International Bill of Human Rights: contains UDHR, International Convention of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), International Convention of Economic and Social Rights (ICESR) Only ICCPR and ICESR are legally enforceable - Process of legal enforcement of conventions: o Certain number of countries must ratify before convention becomes legally binding Every country has different process for ratifying treaties US ex.: US Senate ratifies treaties by 2/3 majority (usually difficult to ratify treaties) US has ratified ICCPR, but not amendment on abolition of death penalty and never ICESR - Human rights vs. States’ rights: o State sovereignty is important, but must also protect universal human values o Problem arises when states violate human rights within borders How important are states’ rights? o UN Charter (Ch. 1, Article 2): protects sovereignty of member states, prohibits threat against sovereign states/political independence Basically prohibits foreign intervention o UN Charter (Ch. 7, Article 39): intervention allowed when sovereignty of states threatens international peace, determined by Security Council o UN Charter (Ch. 7, Article 42): global military force sometimes necessary against sovereign states when threatens international peace - Genocide: intent to destroy all or part of specific group of people (national, ethnic, racial, religious) o Defined by Raphael Lemkin Previously understood that state sovereignty was paramount o Genocide Convention ratified definition 1948 - Humanitarian Intervention: o Some major examples of humanitarian intervention: Rwanda (1994): US inaction Bosnia (1995): NATO eventually intervened Kosovo (1999): part of Serbia (Armenian) Iraq (2003): controversial US invasion of Iraq Justified invasion with idea of weapons of mass destruction that would threaten international peace and human rights Georgia (2008): tensions between Georgians and Russians living in Georgia, Russia intervened Russia justified intervention to protect Georgian Russians from human rights violations- other countries thought it was more self-interested Libya (2011): part of Arab Spring, protests against Gadafi, NATP intervention to overthrow Gadafi Caused political turmoil, Libya basically lawless state now because of intervention o Illustrates problems associated with humanitarian interventions Different values lead to different viewpoints Some argue that humanitarian interventions mostly self-interested Difficult to define 3/30/16 - Rwandan genocide considered one of worst in history - Romeo Dallaire: UN head of peacekeeping during Rwandan genocide o Asked for UN action many times with no success - US reluctant to be involved in Rwanda because 18 marines died before in Somalia o US reluctance heavily influenced UN - US wouldn’t even use world genocide because might obligate them to be involved - Responsibility to Protect (R2P): o Sovereignty is responsibility, not a right o International community responsible to intervene as last resort to stop war crimes, ethnic cleansing, mass murder Sometime military force necessary as last resort o Qualifications: Must have right intention and just cause Only use military force as last resort Force must be proportional to violations Must be carried out under right authority (UN Security Council) Must be likely to succeed - Charlotte Bunch argues that women suffer many violations that are not recognized by international human rights laws - Women’s rights issues: o Violence o Political participation, voting, some opportunities of citizenship o Human trafficking (usually women sex slaves) o Equal pay and educational opportunities o Public/private distinction Classical liberalism valued individual privacy Problem= women mistreated in privacy of own homes, little to no way to eradicate this Ex. domestic rape (husband/wife) not considered rape in US until 1970’s - Why women’s rights issues dismissed: o Sex discrimination seen as trivial issue o Abuse is cultural Ex. Saudi Arabia Ex. female genital mutilation- cultural or human rights violation? o Violations not necessarily human rights violations Problem of state responsibility and private actors Ex. domestic violence is a crime committed between two people, state has little responsibility o Abuse is such a large issue that it can’t be completely fixed - American exceptionalism: idea that Us is special case, refuse to play by the rules o Trend of US reluctance to ratify UN conventions Genocide Convention Racial Discrimination Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (still hasn’t signed) Cruel and Unusual Punishment Rights of Child (still hasn’t signed) Treaty of Rome (establishes ICC), still hasn’t signed
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