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Chapter Nine

by: Michelle Hague

Chapter Nine ISS 210

Michelle Hague
Society and the Individual
Dr. Garcia

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Society and the Individual
Dr. Garcia
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Hague on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Garcia in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.


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Date Created: 11/13/15
Social Problems Chapter 9 Gender Inequality amp the biological differences between males and females Gender the social and cultural patterns attached to women and men Gender stratification the hierarchical distribution of social and economic resources according to gender Unequal access to power resources and opportunity Biological Bases Chromosomal and reproductive differences Hormones Biological differences between the sexes are only averages Considerable overlap Often in uenced by external factors culture class race Social Bases Gender is socially constructed Femininity and masculinity vary Across culture time and the life course By race class and sexuality Cross cultural evidence shows a wide variation of behaviors for the sexes Division of labor Gender and Power Institutions are structured around gender Male dominance beliefs meanings and placement that value men over women Patriarchy social organizations in which men are dominant over women Not all men are uniformly dominant Varied by race class sexuality Sexuality denotes our identities and activities as sexual beings Compulsory heterosexuality the system of sexuality that imposes negative sanctions on those who are not heterosexual What Causes Gender Inequality Gender Roles Approach Learning Gender Socialization of Gender Gender Socialization During Play 1 2 3 4 Clothing Books Toys Language Gender Socialization In the Home l 2 Fathers are more likely to reinforce gender stereotyping than mothers Androgyny the combination of feminine and masculine characteristics 3 More common among girlswomen than boysmen 4 5 Higher levels of self esteem and self worth improved health and Ruby Rose well being better relationships with their parents Gender Socialization Formal education 1 Curriculum 2 Textbooks 3 Teacher Student Interactions 4 5 Female Role Models 6 Sports Title IX 1972 Counseling Socialization as Blaming the Victim l 2 Socialization alone does not explain gender inequality Diverts attention from structural inequality and onto socialized sex differences and sex roles Gender Structure Approach External Social Structures Reinforcing Male Dominance 1 Language derogatory terms 2 Interpersonal Behavior verbal and nonverbal differences 3 4 Mass Communications Media underrepresentation of women gender Doing Gender gender is a system of action stereotyping Miller Lite s Man Up Campaign Unilever Axe vs Dove Religion clergy disproportionately male majority of worshipers are women language 6 The Law 1920 The 19th Amendment women s right to vote 1972 Title IX equality in sports for men and women 1973 Roe V Wade right to choose abortion clinics Politics 2014 23 of US Congress are women 2 women vying for presidential candidate US ranks 66th in the representation of women in political office we believe US to be the best but don t look outside and see that were way behind Women in the Labor Force 0 Occupational segregation pink collar jobs in home care nurses social workers secretaries 0 Structured Gender Inequality The Workplace 1 The Earnings Gap has remained fairly constant for 3 decades even when they work in similar occupations and have the same levels of education 2014 for full timeyear round workers 79 cents for every 100 in annual earnings Women s Median Annual Earnings as a Percentage of Men s Median Annual Earnings for Full Time Year round workers 1974 2014 79 Includes ages 15 By raceethnicity White largest gap at 78 Asian Americans at 79 African American at 90 Hispanic at 89 Latinos much closer to Hispanic men black women close to black men Asian women closer to white men than Asian men women of color very far from white men Why does the earnings gap persist Concentrated in lower paying occupations Enter the labor force at different and lower paying levels than men Lower levels of education and less experience overall Less overtime hours Discrimination and prejudice 1963 The Equal Pay Act prohibits discrepancies based on gender difficult to enforce across occupations Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act 2009 Goodyear Tire Supervisor Unfair pay complaints can be filed within 180 days of a discriminatory paycheck Resets after each paycheck is issued How Workplace Inequality Works 0 Human Capital Theory women s education experience and choices 0 Dual Labor Market Theory the labor market is segmented 0 Primary v Secondary Markets Structural Arrangements in the Workplace Glass ceiling V Glass escalator Gender in the Global Economy Most global assembly workers are young migrant women either internal or transnational Assembly Workers young migrant women face a number of labor rights violations compulsory overtime without pay lower wages than men subcontractors pay the absolute minimum eXposure to hazardous chemicals medical treatment is rare Costs and Consequences of Sexism Who benefits Transnational corporations maximize pro ts Social and Individual Costs The economy suffers SeXism diminishes the quality of life for everyone Fighting the System Feminism Movements in the United States First stage grew out of abolition movement of the 1830s Second stage focused on women s suffrage The 1960s and other protest movements Women s struggles continue in the 21St century


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