New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter Seven

by: Michelle Hague

Chapter Seven ISS 210

Michelle Hague

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Society and the Individual
Dr. Garcia
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Society and the Individual

Popular in Department

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Hague on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Garcia in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.


Reviews for Chapter Seven


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/13/15
Social Problems Chapter 7 The Extent of Poverty  The official poverty line – 3x the cost of a basic nutritional diet  2014 (for a family of 4): $24,250  2013: 14.5% of Americans (45.3 M) lived in poverty, # of people in poverty is highest it’s ever been Problems with Measuring Poverty  Official figures minimize poverty  Housing costs now takes up a greater proportion of the budget than food  Wide variation in the cost of living across the country (NY vs. MI vs. CA)  Rising health care costs  The poor are likely to be missed by the Census (may not have permanent residence, areas that are inaccessible) Racial Minorities  Blacks: 27.2% Gender and Age  The feminization of poverty (historically women have lower levels of education, more likely to have lower paying jobs, more likely to raise children on own)  Women are more likely than men to be poor  On average, women earn 77 cents for every dollar earned by men Age  22% of children (1 in 5) live in poverty  More than half of children under age 6 living in a female-headed household live in poverty  A high proportion of the elderly live just above the poverty line (near poverty) Poverty and Geography  Poverty rates highest in the South and West (do not have indoor plumbing), reservations very high poverty rates  Michigan above 17% (Detroit Area, plants closing)  South above 17% (AZ to NC), GA coming back (booming again)  Persistent poverty counties  More than 20% live below the poverty line  Overwhelmingly rural (Urban counties have resources & options to get out of poverty, rural areas do not)  Extreme poverty neighborhoods  At least 40% of residents live below the poverty line  Consequences: 1. Limited educational opportunities (AP courses not available) 2. Reduction of services 3. Job loss 4. Declining neighborhood conditions 5. Higher incidence of poor physical health and mental health issues Types of Poverty  New Poor 1. Blue-collar workers laid off as a result of economic transformations 2. March 2010: unemployment hit an all-time high of 10% 3. Michigan & Nevada hit hardest 4. January 2015: 5.7% 5. More likely to remain trapped in poverty than the Old Poor (the poor of other generations)  Old Poor 1. Generational, blue-collar workers  Working Poor 1. The annual income of someone earning the federal minimum wage of $7.25/hour ($15,080) is 38% below the federal poverty level for a family of four ($24,250) 2. Even $10/hour falls short 3. 28% of all American workers are paid at or below the level required to stay above the poverty line 2010: 2.6 M full-tine workers were below the poverty line Raising the Minimum Wage  On average, 19% of workers would be affected by a minimum wage increase  About 55% of these workers are women  More than 20% of all working women  Reducing the wage gap by 5%  1/3 of these workers are parents  Widely supported  Would reduce poverty  Would fuel economic growth  Save taxpayers money Recent Developments  White House call for action  Some companies are taking active steps on their own  Walmart- response to labor economics, raising wage to $10/hour  Near Poor 1. People with family incomes at or above the poverty threshold but below 125% of the official poverty line  Severely Poor 1. Those living at or below half the poverty line 2. 6.3% of the population 3. 2013: the average amount needed to lift a poor family out of poverty was $9,834 4. Their numbers are increased significantly since 1979 5. Increasingly isolated in rural areas 6. Substantial increase in single mothers 7. Public assistance benefits have steadily declined Myths About Poverty  Refusal to work  Welfare Dependency (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act)- PRWORA  The Poor Get Special Advantages Causes of Poverty Deficiency Theories 1. Innate Inferiority- Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinism  Assumes biological deficiency  Rationalizes inequality: Poverty is inevitable  Ignores the role of ascribed status 2. Cultural Inferiority  Culture-of-poverty hypothesis: the values and lifestyles of the poor are qualitatively different  Ignores the core values shared with other Americans  Cultural differences should be viewed as adaptations to the conditions of poverty  Cause and effect are flipped Structural Theories 1. Institutional Discrimination  The structural conditions of society create poverty  Inequalities in schooling  Inequalities in the job market  Inequalities in health care 2. Political Economy of Society  Capitalism promotes poverty  Employers are constrained to pay their workers the least possible in wages and benefits  A surplus of laborers is maintained, thereby maintaining low wages and benefits  Investment decisions are made without regard for the impact of the employees  Political decisions complement the workings of the economy to perpetuate poverty Costs of Poverty  Family Problems  Health Problems  Problems in School  Economic Costs Elimination of Poverty  Must be addressed at the national level  Job training; job creation; recalculating the poverty line; increased services  Reduced military spending  The Peace Dividend


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.