PSYC4220 Week 13 Lecture Notes
PSYC4220 Week 13 Lecture Notes PSYC 4220
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
PSYC4220 WEEK 13 NOTES November 9 2015 0 Chapter 13 Social amp Personality Development in Middle Cthhood Erikson s Psychosocial Stages 0 Industry vs lnferiority 612 0 Industry Developing a sense of competence at skills and social rules important to your culture 0 Industrialized nations learn through formal schooling 0 lnferiority Pessimism and lack of con dence in own ability to do things well 0 Industry in childhood more closely correlated to adult success than IQ or background 0 Will to persevereput in effort 0 Help kids succeed in challenges Selfconcept Selfconcept becomes more complex more abstract across middle childhood 0 Start to give some psychological descriptors 0 Begin dividing selfconcept into multiple parts 0 Academic social emotional physical Begin engaging in social comparison 0 Evaluating one s appearance abilities opinions and behavior in relation to others 0 May engage in downward social comparison to protect selfesteem Compare self to people worse than them Selfesteem Selfesteem also becomes differentiated Development of selfesteem Selfesteem increases steadily during middle childhood with slight drop around 12 0 Transition to middle school In uences on selfesteem 0 Impact on behavior and success 0 Cultural Children with emphasis on social comparison often have lower self esteem Collective cultures value social harmony and modesty 0 Gender US girls higher in language arts boys in math science and physical ability Boys and girls overall levels of selfesteem are very similar in middle childhood 0 Race and ethnicity In early childhood African American and Hispanic children have lower selfesteems than Caucasian children 0 But by end of middle childhood selfesteem increases in both groups with African American kids having the highest self esteem by age 11 0 Parenting styles Authoritative parentshigher self esteem Controllingauthoritarian pa rentslower selfesteem Permissive parentsunreaistically high selfesteem adjustment problems In US selfesteem has risen sharply as achievement has fallen anti socialnarcissistic behaviors have increased 0 Don t just praise urge kids to set goals and achieve them 0 Don t praise for talentnatural ability but for effortworking hard 0 In uences on selfesteem Achievement attributions Mastery oriented attributions credit success to high ability failure to insufficient effort o Leads to high selfesteem amp willingness to approach challenging tasks Learned hel plessness credit success to external factors like luck failure to lack of ability 0 Leads to low selfesteem anxiety in the face of challenges and giving up 0 Cycle 0 November 112015 Relationships with peers During middle childhood children start spending m with adults of failure ore time with peers and less time Peer relationships are highly important During middle childhood friendships evolve but can be long lasting if high quality 0 Stage 1 Basing Friendship on Other s Behaviors 47 0 Stage 0 Stage Friends are whom you have fun with Can change easily 2 Basing Friendship on Trust 810 Personality traits popularity academic ability and demographics Friends are people who are similar to you and friends trust each other Situationenvironment matters Friends don t betray you More selective with friends More enduring Aggressive girls are really close jealous talk behind backs 3 Basing Friendship on Psychological Closeness 11 and up Intimacy Friends are people you share intimate thoughts with and friends are loyal Peer groups social units who generate values standards for behavior and social hierarchy Membership is stable for short periods of time but changes form year to year as kids change classrooms 0 Kids that stay in same class5070 of groups stable 0 View excluding kids as wrong less likely to do so for super cial reasons as they age 0 Are okay with excluding due to disrupting group 0 Excluded kids turn to other low status kids or withdraw from peers Chances to improve social skills decrease Peer acceptance extent to which a child is viewed by a group of peers as a worthy social partner 0 Researchers use sociometric techniques to determine peer acceptance 0 Categories of peer acceptance Popular often liked rarely disliked Socially and academically skilled cooperative helpful and low level of intense negative emotions Don t get upset easily happy and easygoing Rejected rarely liked often disliked Rejectedaggressive o Hostile disruptive lacking social skills Rejected withdrawn 0 Socially anxious passive and often bullied Both may lead to academic problems depression and loneliness Neglected neither liked nor disliked lgnored by peers Shy withdrawn but good social skills 0 Happy with peer relationships even with fewer friends 0 Easy to move out of category Controversial liked by many disliked by many Aggressive disruptive but also socially skilled leaders Often in popular group but bullies and class clowns Average some like some dislike in the middle 0 Gender differences in friendships Become more exible about gender during middle cthhood But gender segregation continues intensi es 0 Border work brie y interacting with the opposite gender group to help de ne boundaries between groups Boys friendshipsarger groups clear dominance hierarchy o Attempt to maintainimprove statuscompetitive interactions 0 More accepting of newcomers Play outside cover large areas Girls friendships12 quotbest friendsquot equality in status 0 More cooperation compromising More selfdisclosuresocial support 0 Play inside or in small areas closer to homeschool November 13 2015 0 Chapter 14 Physical Development in Adolescence Adolescent growth spurt period of rapid growth when body takes on adult proportions Females 0 Start age 105 Fastest for height age 12 weight 125 Finish 16 0 Develop more fat in breasts and hips hips widen Males 0 Start 13 Fastest for height age 135 weight 14 Finish 1820 0 Develop more muscle mass broader shoulders Cephalocaudal principle reverses Face also takes on adult shape Puberty biological change resulting in sexual reproductive maturity Females 0 Starts at 911 development of breast buds o Menarche 1st menstruationaverage in US125 o Other changes Hair growth Widening of hips rounding of body Maturation of reproductive organs Males o Begins at 1112 with enlargement of testes Scrotum thickens testes fully descend o Spermarche initial ejaculation average age 13 Sperm productionaverage age 14 o Other changes Increase in muscle mass Hair growth Voice changes Sexual organs mature 0 Reactions to puberty Both positive and negative reactions 0 More positive if prepared 0 Girls likely to tell momfriends 0 Boys likely to tell no one Gender differences in reactions to body image 0 Girls more negativedon t like weight gain hair growth menstruation 0 Very few with positive body image regardless of body shape 0 Focus on fat leads to dieting Boys more positivelike increase in muscle like hair 0 Negative body image if too skinnyoverweight 0 Focus on muscle leads to exercise and supplements Teens with very negative body images are at risk for depression anxiety eating disorders and low self esteem 0 Timing of puberty Mostly studied in girls Affected by 0 Body weight nutrition and exercise More fateary puberty o Heredity Identical twins start close together 0 Environmentalfactors O High levels of stress harsh parenting and parental separation are associated with earlier start of menarche Secular trend shift in pattern of characteristics over time Secular trend in puberty industrialized nationsearlier Precocious puberty 0 Age 78 Delayed puberty in girls 0 At 13no breast growth 0 At 14no pubic hair 0 At 16no menstruation Delayed puberty in boys 0 At 14no testicle growth 0 At 15no pubic hair 0 Nutritionearlier puberty Early vs On time vs Late 0 Boys 0 Early maturation mostly advantageous More socially competent con dent athletic and leaders 0 But more stress depression and problem behaviors Affected by how they are treated by adults 0 Late maturation disadvantageous More anxious less athletic Lower scores on academic tests and lower educational aspirations