Week 4 Notes Anthro 131
Week 4 Notes Anthro 131 ANTH131
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyle Roe on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH131 at a university taught by Gamble in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 185 views.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
Week 4 Notes Extra Credit This Monday Presentation at SB Museum of Natural History about lone woman of San Nicholas Island Island of the Blue Dolphins girl think they found the cave she lived in and some of her belongings Eastern Pueblos Style of making pots says where you re from who you are Rio Grande River goes right through Eastern Pueblo Rio Grande Pueblos Except for Taos Pueblo Eastern Pueblos much more spread out than Western Lots of one story buildings 0 Contrasting Western Pueblos Large kivas Pueblo Subsistence Principle Staples Corn beans and squash Mostly farmers Maize another name for corn Grow multi colored corn Don t eat it off the cob dry it and grind it down then make it into cornmeal That way they can store it for a while Summer monsoonal rains irrigate cornfields Corn ground with manos and metates metates are two handed in Southwest Metates are set within slablined bins made out of rocks or stone Women usually ground the corn Zuni Waffle Garden quotKitchen garden close to home Pueblo Pottery Each village has distinctive style of pottery One way to adapt to changes to natural way of life displacement from traditional lands was by selling traditional crafts like pottery Sometimes men take women s roles in society highly respected amongst community Nampeyo from Hopi village of Hano on First Mesa 0 One of the most famous Eastern potters o Nampeyo s descendants are also well known potters Pueblo Attire Men adopted western clothing during the 19th century Zuni necklaces shell beads stone beads carved in animals Big hoop earrings bandana Unmarried women do their hair into a woven up Princess Leia type style Matrilineal inheritance passed on through mother s line husband moves to wife s area after marriage women own the fields 0 Gives them leverage over bad husbands women can easily kick them out Men will be spiritual leaders 0 Ex hold family medicine bundle Other Pueblo Crafts Clans Weaving of cotton cloth 0 Men did the weaving 0 Sheep very important 0 Pueblo weavers probably taught the Navajo how to weave o Pueblo and Navajo upright looms are essentially identical I Suspended from rafters by ropes Basket weaving 0 Has become less important to Pueblo during historic times 0 Hopi plaques mostly flat baskets sometimes sold to tourists Jewelrymaking o Necklaces and earrings Silverworking introduced during the historic period derived from silver coins Shell jewelry goes way back usually from California coast Mined turquoise in nearby deposits for jewelry Zuni jewelry is very distinctive 0000 Western Pueblos Hopi and Zuni o Matrilineal clans and lineages o Phratries one level of organization above a clan into which clans are grouped 0 Weak village leadership 0 Secret societies Eastern Pueblos 0 Weak clans or none 0 Moieties derived from French world for dual people divided up into 2 lineages o Curing societies 0 Strong village leadership All Pueblo societies egalitarian political positions based on wisdom and seniority only Possible Reasons for Differences Between Eastern and Western Pueblos Disruption of Eastern Pueblos social organization resulting from Spanish colonization and rapid population decline Eastern emphasis on agriculture need larger workforce closer management than Western dry farming Separate origins of Eastern and Western Pueblo forms of social organization Pueblo Religion and Ceremonialism Kivas enter from ceiling by ladder 0 Where ritual activities occurred Priesthoods Secret societies not supposed to tell what you learn after initiation o Gain powers from their rituals 0 Each performed a ceremony Ceremonial rounds Zuni Ceremonial Rooms Analogous to kivas at other pueblos Trade in macaw feathers from Central America Ceremonial Dances Masked dancers take on role of kachinas supernatural beings who ensure the wellbeing of the village population Kachina Hopi Snake Dance would dance with live rattlesnakes o Requires 2 weeks of ritual preparation 0 Snakes supposed to be emissaries from the Rain Spirit 0 Dance with the snakes in their hands and mouths Contrast between serious and comic 0 Clown dancers I Unique function I Come out and make fun of ceremonies in the middle of the ceremonies I Serve as negative example of what should not be done I Humiliate the dancers those in attendance I Say annoying and rude things I Allowed to strip someone naked and then point and ridicule them I They will paint their bodies usually white with black stripes like a zebra I Acrobatic Yucca leaves allow you to be a prophet in dances Shalako super tall messenger 0 Don t stand on stilts 0 Hold head up with pole under robes peep through skirt 0 Heads are 10 feet high Mudhead 0 Another clown 0 Makes fun of spectators kachinas and priests o Lewd and obscene gestures 0 Work with bodily excrements Katsina meant to teach what is right is wrong 0 Clowns teach you what you should never do I But they are also a comedic outlet I Everyone laughs at the clowns I Cultural norm to not be too proud I Clowns usually pick on the boastful those who haven t been acting right Mudhead s rope called a bullroarer 0 Makes unworldly sound when twirled 0 Used by traditional societies around the world 0 Interesting item 0 20s and 30s diffusion was a popular theory but we now know it was independent invention in many civilizations Katsina Dolls Remind children of cultural norms of society 0 How to act right Made from single piece of cottonwood mineral paints Carved representation of spiritual beings Sometimes decorated with feathers Southwest Church at Laguna Pueblo Sacred paintings of First People mixed in with Christian imagery of the church Syncretism cultural traits are combined ex Laguna Pueblo Church Navajo Moved into Southwest c AD 1500 Major presence 0 Radio stations 0 Most widely spoken North American First People s language Moved into Southwest from the Plains with the Apache Impacted the Hopi Peabody Coal Mine 0 Played off other groups with Navajo groups 0 Increase mining there Also uranium mining in 1950s70s Large corporations give reservations lots of needed money Didn t say the tailings were highly toxic Left the tailings all over Some made adobe out of tainted material All became very ill Photographs of daycare centers all toddlers deformed I Damn near sounds like Chernobyl but on a smaller scale OOOOOO Pueblo People in the Modern Era Trade goods things they have made including art for staples and supplies Navajos and Apaches 17001864 Prereservation Hopi had large swath of land with smaller Navajo territory 18681882 Reservations made after return of Navajo from internment at Bosco Redondo BR didn t work at all Navajo given larger plot of land than Hopi right on 4 corners 1962 Creation ofJointuse area Navajo area completely surrounds the tiny Hopi area almost entirely in Arizona none of it spills into Colorado anymore NavajoApache origins Expanded relatively late from Western Subarctic Came to Southwest from the Plains beginning after 1500 AD but not apparent until after the Coronado Expedition in early 1540s Early Navajo Dwellings Hogans Forkedstick structure I 3 major poles coming out through hole in the roof I Look at interior made of a lot of wood Late 19thearl 20th 0 Octagonal in ground plan 0 Long side and a cribbed log roof cover with soil Sweat lodges smaller hogans Navajo Residential Complexes No clustered houses all spread out Canyon de Chelly National Monument Traditional Navajo Social Organization Newly married couple may live with either the husband s or wife s family a quotbilocalquot marriage pattern Extended family forms a residence group of one or a few closelyspaced hogans Residence groups are widely spaced because of sheepgrazing requirements 0 Navajo rely on sheep ate the mutton and used the wool o Grazing property around their homesteads Navajo social organization is matrilineal The senior woman within an extended family has a good deal of authority Relocation causes some Navajo families to leave their homes 0 Some matriarchs refuse to leave their hogans the family has to stay with them Traditional Navajo Attire Women living rurally still wear the velveteen longsleeved blouse and long skirt Men s clothing generally has been EuroAmerican since the mid19th century although they too may wear velveteen shirts Navajo Subsistence Activities Herd sheep Plant cornfields 0 Dry corn to make cornmeal like the Pueblo people Farmers and herders o The Pueblo aren t herders only farmers Navajo Rug Weaving Before c 1900 Navajo wove serapes wearing blankets rather than rugs Weaving rugs connected many Navajo families to the cash economy of tourism Use similar loom to Pueblos 0 Frame on the ground 0 Can also hang blankets as you weave them Sold to tourists 0 High prices thousands of dollars in art galleries Contemporary Navajo Economy Coal mining on Black Mesa Window Rock capital of Navajo nation Strip malls Mystery Novels by Tony Hillerman 18 novels on the Navajo since 1970 Contemporary life on Zuni and Navajo reservations depicted Really knew the landscape Mystery novels with 2 Navajo tribal policemen as protagonists No author with the respect or accuracy with which he describes Navajo life Apaches Western Chiricahua Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches About 1000 people living in each tribal area at time of Spanish contact Subsistence Jicarilla huntergatherers small time farmers Southern Apaches around Texas were mainly huntergatherers Apache Social Organization Matrilocal extended families 1020 extended families would occupy a territory No clan organization Multifamily units often grouped into bands of a few hundred organizations Tribe consisted of multiple bands One of the most famous Apaches Geronimo Apaches mid to late 19th century Most Apache bands settled on reservations during late 19th century Geronimo refused 0 0000000 Would steal horses Tried to escape to Mexico to avoid reservation system Would fight Spanish and settlers Government viewed him as a powerful force Would convince families to live in hiding and run from reservations But it was a hard life some returned to reservations Eventually caught deported to Florida in 1886 Told his people they could not live in hiding anymore fight the US government Pima and Papago Thatch covered houses 0 Dome shaped Lived in Southern Arizona and Northern Mexico Cultures were essentially the same Hohokam O odham people were ancestors of PimaPapago O O O 0 Made beautiful pottery Looters raid properties and dig up burials find pots to sell on the market Important for collectors to buy replicas so they don t support looting Looters disturb the ancestors interfere with archaeological work Casa Grande 00000 South of Phoenix Large structures existed late in Hohokam prehistory Hohokam settlements abandoned in ca AD 1450 Practiced irrigation agriculture not dry farming Probably due to climate change irrigation agriculture was no longer viable PimaPapago Dwellings Thatch houses top covered in earth Village consisted of loose cluster of extended families based on patrilocality and marriage Dry area besides monsoonal rains in summer Mesquite Bean Processing Small tree grows along desert washes Important resource Mesquite bean flour is nutritious good source of protein Found in southern California too Grinded down with mortar and pestles Put beans in a basket throw it up in the air the parts you don t want will blow away Saguaro Cactus Fruit Gathering and Processing Fruits come off of big leaves Gathered with poles with hook at the end Rubbed to remove thorns Boiled in pottery directly over a fire modern metal containers used now as well Irrigation Agriculture Used Gila and Salt Rivers Dug irrigation canals Grew corn beans and squash Today they use modern techniques pipes and stuff Characteristics of Southwest Culture Area Pueblo and PimaPapago long history in area Navajo and Apache arrived around 1500 Farming agriculture important to most groups except for Southern Apache mostly hunter gatherers Sedentary villages except some Apache were relatively mobile Most used pottery for cooking and food storage Social organization often egalitarian but otherwise diverse including lineageclan moiety and extended familyband types of social organization 0 Moiety dual divide all their society into two groups but within that there can be more divisions ex wolf moiety Most political leaders senior members with leadership skills Northwest Coast Culture Area From Northern California through Canada all the way to Alaska Salish Nootka Kwakwaka wakw Kwakiutl Haida Tlingit Environment Many channels and rivers Dense rainforests Glaciers Very productive fisheries 0 Most of our salmon comes from Northwest Coast Precontact Shell midden deposits 0 Same as seen in California 0 Dark greasy soil typical of shell midden deposits Eat lots of shellfish in addition to regular fish Earliest sites about 10000 years old 0 Few sites earlier than 5000 years old Classic Northwest Coast culture began 3k4k years ago Woodworking tools apparent around 2k years ago