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PSYC week of notes for exam 4

by: AnnaCiara

PSYC week of notes for exam 4 2110

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Psychlogy > 2110 > PSYC week of notes for exam 4
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lecture notes for exam 4
Psychology of Human Sexuality
Seth Kalichman
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by AnnaCiara on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2110 at University of Connecticut taught by Seth Kalichman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
13 Anna Ciara Mason Sexual Orientation, Identity and Behavior Sexual orientation • Physical and emotional attractions and interests that draws one both sexually and romantically towards others • Sexual orientation is identity • Inner awareness of one’s life in terms of sexual and romantic relationships • Not to be confused with gender identity • Often categorized into o 1- heterosexual o 2- homosexual o 3- bisexual Kinsey scale • Can represent extremes for homosexual and heterosexual • Everything in between is bisexuality • Complexity has since been added • No longer just a continuum – it has multiple dimensions 3 ways of conceptualizing sexuality • 1) the typology • 2) kinsey’s continuum • 3) 2D scheme o low interest in both same and opposite sex = asexual elements of sexual orientation – don’t always line up Desire: Who you want to be with in a sexual/romantic way Vs Behavior – actions in sexual/romantic way Vs Identification – can be heterosexual but have some inte rest in same sex What factors lead to homosexuality? (there is a right answer) • Same factors that lead to heterosexuality Structural homophobia • Irrational fear that results in discrimination based on sexual orientation • Not the same across all cultures • 76 countries criminalize homosexuality o 38 of them are in Africa o 97% of Ethiopians said homosexuality should be outlawed Psychiatric history • Homosexuality was considered a mental health problem by the American psychiatric o A disorder that can be treated o Only disorder if people don’t feel their sexual orientation “fit” or was congruent with who they are o Now completely done away with – now not considered a mental illness o Some mental health professionals practice “reorientation therapy” § Deemed unethical by many associations to do with mental health Normal variant model • Evelyn Hooker 1907-1996 • Said no variant of sexual orientation should be pathologized Bell, Weinberg and Hammersmith study • Did a path analytical model • Found that same sex orientation is likely determined before adolescence • Desire predates behavior – just like heterosexuality Love maps • John Money o Was involved in study with gender identity o Same gene composition in twins – circumcision accident – did sexual reconstruction therapy and was followed for HER whole life and it taught us about how gender i dentity formulates o Started to be very different around puberty o Johns Hopkins o Formulated theory of love map – very important concept o Kind of like a schema – mental representation but not of things in the world but of t he self in relation to things in the world o “a developmental representation of a template in the mind and in the brain depicting the idealized program of sexual and erotic activity projected in imagery or actually engaged in with that lover”-Money 1980 § mind not the same as brain but love maps are wired § it’s developmental – meaning it evolves and you’re not born with it there is a pattern/prediction § template = representation (how it’s like a schema) o everybody has one – EVEN IF YOU DON’T o imagine your perfect partner/lover à that’s your love map! Those features that you imagine change – it’s developmental & what you want to do with them o we know it’s not genetically determined • Preference is part of sexual orientation o What preferences actually influence sexual orientation vary largely with individual o Better representation than Kinsey scale Fetal hormones can be important • Note!! Also important is the tissue’s sensitivity to those hormones • Environment impacts this too • Early life experiences also have an impact o Sexual reversal play is extremely common/likely Thinking of sexual orientation like hand orientation • Analogy to sexual orientation Mairrage and same sex relations Gay and Lesbian families • Some states don’t let same sex couples adopt – law allowing same sex marriage has helped this • Studies show no adverse effects of having parents of the same sex o Evidence of benefits § Tend to be more open and accepting of other people ’s families – a psychological benefit 14 Anna Ciara Mason Spectrum of Human Sexual Behavior What is normal sexuality? • Applying statistical normality to sexual thing s doesn’t make sense What is normal sexuality? In terms of over sexual behavior • We accept the definition: 2 or more consenting adults in privacy o Caveats? o Sexual behavior is external expression Egodystonic – goes against Erotic Target Location Err ors (ETLEs) • Sexual interests that become focused on an unusual object as the focus for attraction or activity • There may be a learning or conditioning process involved Erotic plasticity perspective • People’s sexualities can be changed on day to day circu mstances • More of a preferential view than love map Sexual motivation theories • Erotophilia Bill Fisher • Erotophobia • Hypersexuality • Hyposexuality Promiscuity – another name for hypersexuality • Generally assumed that there is emotional lack in the sexual encounters – not always true • How we apply this concept to males and females is an example of gender bias • Negative connotation for females, less so for males – still true Compulsive sexual behavior or hypersexuality • When it causes problems, person might not feel like they ’re in control of their sexual behavior and may do more than they want • Controversial to refer to it as “sex addiction” Nymphomania – excessive sex drive/appetite in women Satyriasis - excessive sex drive/appetite in men Paraphilia – atypical love maps • Patterns of sexual behavior that may be c onsidered problematic • Can be problematic but not abnormal and vice versa • Sexual behaviors that are statistically rare – fall out of the bell curve • Involve non sexual outlets • Typical = erogenous zones • “a developmental representation of a template in the mind and in the brain depicting the idealized OBJECT of sexual and erotic activity projected in imagery or actually engaged in with that lover”-Money 1980 Causes • Combination of genetics and fetal hormones and brain sensitivities (like normal) • Juvenile experiences and a critical period for sexuality development o Early adolescence and post puberty o Between 10 and 17 is critical period What role does fantasy play in paraphilia? • Paraphiles will fantasize about the ideal object • Love maps drive fantasy • Fantasizing about having sex with shoes doesn ’t make you a paraphil o If that’s all you can focus on and be aroused by then that ’s paraphilia o Fantasy doesn’t define paraphilia o In fact, it’s the counter opposite because you can CONTROL a fantasy Dif kinds of paraphilia(which IS psychiatric diagnosis) List not a family because they’re not related • Fetishism- specific inanimate object becomes the focus of arousal o More often in men than women – garment collecting o Inanimate object integrated into love map o Violating someone is abnormal because it’s not two CONSENTING adults o One of the most common paraphilias • Partialism – another type of paraphilia o Involve parts of the body that are not typically considered erogenous zones o Ex: feet, or even breast • Tranvestism – cross dressing o Cross dressing is not a paraphilia o Not to be confused with transvestitism o Women have more latitude on gender latitude on cross dress o This is when cross dressing becomes sexualized and you depend on it o If it is the ONLY way you get turned on – that’s a paraphilia o Something about men’s hormones and tissue sensitivity and young experiences make men more vulnerable to having a paraphilia o Typically doesn’t happen in public • Frotteurism"mashing" o Urge to rub against someone who is non-consentingà IS IT ABNORMAL BC IT’S NOT 2 CONSENTING ADULTS IN PRIVACY o Almost always men o Seek crowded area o 1 paraphilia so far that is ALWAYS abnormal • Exhibitionism "flashers" o Exposure of one’s self o For it to be a paraphilia it must be a consistent urge and part of love map o Age 13-17 when it starts o Myth: always leads to something more threatening o Can be traumatizing for a victim o Certainly illegal • Voyeurism o Watching people without them knowing o Aroused by invasion of privacy o To be a paraphilia – must be dependent on this o Paraphilic voyeurism is d ifferent than “peeping” with intention of sexual assault • Sadism and Masochism (S&M) o Sadism is the focus on having pain inflicted o Masochism is focus on inflicting pain on another o Sometimes one person wants more than another o There is a relationship compliment to the paraphilia • Necrophilia – may stop at a fantasy • Adult baby syndrome - wanting to be treated like a baby and being sexually aroused by it • Hyperventilation syndrome • Autoerotic asphyxiation – can be very dangerous in situation where person might actually hang themselves o Autoerotic because they masturbate while they do it • Zoophilia – sex with animal NEVER NORMAL Paraphilic attraction to children • Pedophilia – dependence of sexual arousal and focus of sexual arousal on children (13 and under) o Specifically someone who is an adult or 5 years older Pharaphilic attraction to pubescent adolescent s • Hebephilia • Adult focus on adolescent on source of sexual arousal • 5 year rule more important • victim is involved (someone is victimized) Effects of child sexual abuse • Traumatogenic/dynamic model of sexual desire • PTSD


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