Week 3 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Brandenburg on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 4362 at Ohio University taught by Hoyt in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology of Justice in Psychlogy at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
Chapter 5 Criminal Pro ling amp Psychological Autopsies D Why do people commit crimes 0 Psychological Theories PsychoanalyticalTheories 0 Power amp arousal id superego ego o Freud id someone wants something the superego might be weak Cognitive amp Social Theories 0 Cognitive perceptions peer in uence and conformity 0 Cognitive perceptions the way one person interprets something differs from the way the majority of people see that same thing 0 Peer in uence and conformity play a large role in gangs 0 Environmental factors 0 Where one was raised exposure to chemicals 0 BiopsychologicalTheories o Hormones brain genetics 0 Personality amp psychological disorders 0 Antisocial o PTSD o Bipolar manic episodes 0 Schizophrenia D Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy o Willingness to lie lack of remorse o lmpulsivity reckless behavior risk taking irritability aggressiveness 0 Failure to conform to social norms laws 0 Little or no concern for the rightswelfare of others May have a history of abusing animals New research is nding neurological differences in the amygdala o Psychopathy what is it and how is it different from ASPD Psychopaths are more extreme Psychopathy checklist by Hare 1980 20 assessment characteristics in two categories 0 Aggressive narcissism Social deviant lifestyle D Pro ling 0 Myths and misconceptions There are careers for pro lers Pro ling is successful at pinpointing a suspect 0 Issues in pro ling Can we classify serial criminals Ressler Burgess amp Douglas 1988 o Organized v disorganized Organized clean scene enough to just get the job done Disorganized mental health issues overkill messy scene 0 Holmes amp DeBurger 1988 o Visionary individuals with psychosis instructions to kill from delusions 0 Mission oriented killing those who think they deserve it Green River Killer 0 Hedonistic sadistic take pleasure in killing 0 Power oriented like to control the victim before killing them Do criminals act in consistent ways 0 Mokros amp Alison 2002 analysis of convicted rapists found no correlation Narrowing the focus of the investigation too much 0 Most serial killers are white males in their 30 s 40 s Chapter 4 The Psychology of Forensic Identi cation D lden ca on o Fingerprinting 7 main types of patterns No hard research or science done on ngerprints No standard for what constitutes a match how many points of commonality No certi cation required Experimenter bias and conformation bias 0 Experimenters may have an expectation so they look for or push an individual toward what they re expecting o This can be xed with double blind studies 0 DNA Analysis PCR RFLP mitochondrial DNA 0 Mitochondrial DNA 0 Don t have to have live cells just in the hair the root is not needed o If access to the actual persons DNA is not possible then a maternal relatives DNA will work Problems with DNA Tests can be wrong 0 Sample size 0 Don t want to destroy it if there is only a small amount Contamination 0 First responders animals Storage 0 Refrigeration Cost 0 About 500 Experimenter Bias 0 Forensic scientists are part of law enforcement o blind experimental procedures are not used D Polygraph 0 Basic polygraph procedure Take baseline readings while asking control questions sometimes ask the person to intentionally lie Ask key questions and look for spike in readings Other variation 0 Guilty knowledge test 0 quotWhat was the victim wearing when you stabbed himherquot 0 quotDid you go to the kitchen to grab a knife or did you bring your ownquot Factsassumptions 0 Designed to measure emotional spike through physiological response Lying does not necessarily result in emotion Error rate reliability very poor 3070 false positive 0 Research on the polygraph o Defeating the polygraph Belief in polygraph o quotI think I can beat thisquot Physical methods 0 Change the baseline Cognitive methods 0 Count backwards from 100 by 7 0 Legal use of the polygraph today 0 Polygraph Protection Act 1988 Prohibits private employers from using polygraph results in employment decisions 0 US v Sheffer 1998 Prohibits polygraph results in military criminal cases
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