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Ento 2010 Week 11 Lecture Notes

by: Caitlin Conner

Ento 2010 Week 11 Lecture Notes ENTO 2010

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Entomology > ENTO 2010 > Ento 2010 Week 11 Lecture Notes
Caitlin Conner
GPA 3.8

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Lecture Notes from 3/28-3/30. Last set of notes for Exam 2.
Insects & the Environment
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
Ento 2010 Weel 11 Notes March 28, 2016 o Order: Siphonaptera  Siphon=tube  Aptera=wingless  Common name: fleas  Species=1,800 o Siphonaptera  Complete metamorphosis  Piercing/sucking mouthparts  No wings  Adults of both sexes are blood-sucking parasites  Good jumpers and runners  Narrow body  Many are disease vectors o Fleas:  Female needs blood for eggs  Female eats 15 times her weight/day  Female lays 2000 eggs  Eggs hatch in 1-10 days  Larvae feed on adult feces  Larva spins a sticky cocoon  Cocoon is well camouflaged  Life cycle is 12-174 days  Environment (temperature and humidity) is very important o Fleas are attracted to:  Heat  Carbon dioxide  Light  Movement o Fleas:  Can jump 200 times their length  Resilin: a protein in the back legs of fleas that works like a rubber band o Miriam Rothschild is a world flea expert  She showed that female flea reacts to sex hormones of a pregnant female host  Female flea adjusts her reproductive cycle to match that of her host  Lays her eggs on babies of host o Bubonic Plague  Vector: fleas  Disease: bacteria  Yersinia pestis  Antibiotic treatment is effective  Found in Russia, Middle East, and Western U.S.  Major outbreak in India o Bubonic plague:  Reservoir=rodents  Bacteria enter flea with blood meal  Bacteria multiply in flea gut  Bacteria break entry to gut  Flea seeks new host  Flea feeds on new host  Regurgitates blood with bacteria  Host is infected o Elephantiasis  Vector: mosquitoes  Disease organism: roundworms  Causes swollen appendages  300 million people in Southeast Asia have Elephantiasis o River Blindness  Vector: black flies  Disease: roundworms  West Africa  20 million people infected o Possible use of insects in war  Modify plague bacteria  Destroy crops  War on drugs  March 30, 2016  Mimicry : Resemblance of an organism to some other organism/object  Natural Selection : change in the frequency of genetic traits in a population through differential survival of individuals bearing those traits  Natural selection:  Blue jay (a predator) eats moths  50 years ago most moths were pale  pale moths were hard to see on trees  pollution darkened trees  today most moths are dark  dark moths are now harder to catch  Batesian mimicry: resemblance of an edible species (mimic) to an unpalatable species (model) to deceive predators  Batesian mimicry:  Viceroy looks like monarch butterfly  Monarch larva eats toxic milkweed  Viceroy larva eats non-toxic willow  Monarch adult is toxic=model  Viceroy adult is non-toxic=mimic  Blue jay “learns” to avoid mimic  Mullerian mimicry: mutual resemblance of 2 or more unpalatable species to enhance predator avoidance  Crypsis : resemblance of an organism to its background  Dead Leaf Butterfly  Outer wings look like leaf  Inner wings have bright color o Wing edge of moth/butterfly may mimic caterpillar or snake o Nemoria arizonaria  Spring  Caterpillar eats oak flowers: mimics flowers  Summer  Caterpillar eats oak leaves: mimics twigs  Passion vine & butterfly interaction:  Passion vine leaves have toxins to deter insects  Some butterfly species can eat only 1 passion vine species  Passion vine leaves mimic each other to confuse butterfly  Female butterfly lays one egg per leaf, because larvae are cannibals!  Passion vine makes “mimic eggs” on leaf  Butterfly avoids passion vine leaves with “mimic eggs”  April 1, 2016 o Exam 2


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