Week 7 Classics 20 Notes
Week 7 Classics 20 Notes Classics 20
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Kovsky on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Classics 20 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Gurval in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Discovering Romans in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
11915 Lecture 19 Philosobhers in Rome o Politics and Religion 0 Patriotism service to state 0 piety service to gods 0 patriotism and piety were indistinguishable virtues eg Aeneas Camillus Augustus 0 Types of Religious teaching 0 sung by poets in traditional myths 0 though out by philosophers 0 created by leading men of the state 0 Later RepublicEmpire Philosophical schools 0 Epicureans I Epicurus Greek philosopher from Samos 0 parents from Athens 0 The Garden his school known for its meeting place 0 wanted to get rid of the fear of death by explaining the nature of the universe 0 atomic theory world is made up of atoms that break apart and disperse in the air I ataraxia Greek freedom from fears lacking disturbances of the mind supreme aim happiness from banishing all fears Epicure one who gives himself up to sensual pleasures glutton Dictionary definition Epicureans were not popular in Rome Notable Roman Epicureans Julius Caesar his assassin Cassius I Lucretius Roman poet and philosopher o wrote On the Nature of Things six books of epic verse replaced Muses with Venus dedicated to Roman patron Gaius Memmius depicted Epicurus as a god and a Roman victor Myth of lphigenia 1st kid of Greek commander Agamemnon sacrificed to the gods 0 wrote about atomic theory the soul dualism of the mind sensations sex origins and nature of the world science of thunder lightning earthquakes and volcanoes o Stoics in Rome followers of Zeno I Zeno Greek philosopher o born at Citium Cyprus 0 Phoenician descendant o Stoa public hall in Athens where Zeno taught I Panaetius Greek philosopher o born on island of Rhodes 0 came to Rome and brought new ideas changed stoicism so that it would have a side that appealed to Roman cultural attitudes Practical Approach to live according to nature practical conduct superior to abstract truth universe filled with Divine Spirit concerned with daily existence while alive abandoned some of Zeno s ideas on divine conflagration of the universe and every human being even slaves has a share of this divinity I foundations I Cicero O O conscience and duty every man ruler of his own soul and needs to work to make it indefensible from external threats no one is perfect not absolute virtue required by progress toward virtue high moral standards and virtues will to live up to these virtues by emotional selfcontrol not letting emotions control your life Not a stoic but had a stoic attitude admired Panaetius preached Stoicism Roman Stoics Cato the Younger political enemy of Julius Caesar Roman senator defeated at Battle of Thapsus refuses to accept pardon kills himself and becomes a symbol of political defiance O 0000 I Went to African city of Utica I eats bathes reads Plato then stabs himself but unsuccessfully I son finds him and stitches him up so Cato rips out his innards to kill himself again Cicero wrote him a eulogy praising him Julius wrote one defaming him Seneca the Younger Lucius Annaeus Seneca father a distinguished Orator one of three sons born in Corduba Spain 0 0 OOO almost executed by Emperor Caligula later banished by successor Emperor Claudius accused of adultery with Caligula s sister brought back by Agrippina Caligula s other sister and Nero s mother eventually retires and withdraws from political life Moral Epistles collection of letters I mores latin word for custom traditions system or code of conduct that defines human behavior I addressed to one man Lucilius fictitious Epicurean actually addressed to the greater public or Rome I themes friendship thosophy literature slaves death but significantly not politics lnvulnerability of the wise manphilosopher that we should all try to be 0 can suffer no injury or loss because everything valuable is in us 0 immovable unshaken inviolable free REDEFINES VIRTUE shows human weakness and uses for inner reflection shows human side of the philosopher le er56 too many sounds tries to block them out but can t and give up moment of weakness this is how we make ourselves better dealing with distraction of the external environment and finding inner peace we are all preparing for death 0 we need to be ready for death I le er53 stoic philosopher goes on a trip but gets seasick swims back to shore then sees his idiocy philosophy as King I le er47 0 on slavery 0 golden rule treat others as you would want to be treated 0 actually a contemporary of St Paul I letters I intended forfollowers larger audience I wrote letters to each other trying to convert each other probably fictional 11l13l15 Lecture 20 Gladiators in the Arena 0 Origins of gladiatorial combats 0 often attributed to the Etruscans and their funeral rites I Display of courage man fighting to the death with a sword believed to be an Etruscan custom to honor the dead I Ancient Evidence 0 Greek historian who associates gladiators with Etruria but he s the only one that does 0 also the word for the trainer of gladiators Ianista is an Etruscan word 0 Etruscan god Charon of the undenNorld is associated with god dis Pater who escorts defeated gladiators out of the arena 0 however we don t see gladiatorial competitions depicted in their artwork 0 Others attribute it to Campania and southern Italy I first permanent amphitheaters and arenas for gladiators built in this area I earliest gladiator types was known as Samnite who were from southern Italy I wall paintings of Paestum a region south of Naples may have the earliest representations of gladiators who are represented with blood dripping from them I Etruscans may still be involved because some of them did settle in this area 0 First record of exhibition of gladiatorial combats o funeral games of lunius Brutus Pera who had Etruscan origins o 264 BCE 0 put on by his sons Marcus and Decimus o 3 pairs fought to the death in the Forum Boarium o Spectacle of Gladiatorial Combats 0 numbers of gladiators fighting increased over the years 0 associated with funerals for various families 0 public magistrates and candidates for office began to give gladiatorial contests 0 Julius Caesar staged funeral games with gladiatorial combats for members of his family in particular for women family members collected his own troop of gladiators enemies feared he would use them in civil war but he didn t Gladiatorial spectacle as games mm o gladiators often treated in law the same as actors and prostitutes Greek athletes and charioteers 0 entertainment people were not given the full rights of citizens Gladiatorial Schools 0 organization and training first took place in Campania o trained with wooden posts as opponents paus 0 word for schoolludiword for games o Trainerlanista Troop of gladiators 0 known as a Family familia often named by their owner lulianiaJulius Caesar NeroianiaNero slaves and freedmen often purchased as slaves prisoners of war convicted criminals later could gain freedom but many chose to stay as gladiators 0 some freedmen volunteered to be gladiators benefits of being a gladiator 0 money pay could be considerable and retired gladiators could be very wealthy o glory people knew their names 0 women Pompeian Graffiti about suggests that gladiators got all the girls Weapons 0 bronze helmets with visors and shields that were large round and convex 0 metal belt balteus to hold up loincloth o lance and spear replaced by sword gladiusgtgladiatorhe who fights with the 0000 sword o began to wear greaves to protect their legs and long gloves to protect their hands and arms lmperial categories 0 Samnite o Netman most popular fought with net and a trident o Chaser often against the netman large shield and gladius Pompeian graffiti depicts fights the names troops number of fights and number of wins of the fighters as well as the outcome of the fight Death 0 gladiators rarely died in the arena death rate may have been as low as 10 most that died did not die intentionally but of their wounds chances good for losers 41 spared many did die in the arena OOOO sign in Pompeii 9 victorious 6 spared 3 perished some may have fought with dull weapons the exception was in Rome games taken over by emperor and became fights to the death 0 example at dedication of colloseum the two most popular fighters fought to a draw and both were declared victors Thumbs up and thumbs down 0 thumbs up when you wanted the victor to kill the loser 0 thumb pressed to the hand indicated to spare the loser public announcements 0 tell us a lot about gladiatorial shows painted on walls only way they survived announced the games who paid for them known as editors number of pairs whether there were other special shows whether there would be awnings and spraying of perfumed water location of show days of performance The Hunt very popular with Romans men equipped with weapons to hunt an animal in an arena continued even when Christianity put an end to gladiatorial games huge numbers of wild animals slaughtered usually lions tigers panthers sometimes they had shows where two animals would be made to fight each other Magerius Mosaic found in TUnisia represented hunts 0 gave names of hunters and the names of the leopards The Rena first public displays of gladiators held in Forum Boarium Pompei was always ahead of Rome in entertainment Pompeiian Amphitheater amphitheater held more people than lived in the town had no name 0 Flavian Amphitheater Colosseum most famous amphitheater I built by the Flavian family suffered from fires earthquakes restored later used as fortress in the Middle Ages associated with martyrdom of the Christians became a sacred place later named after the huge statue colossus originally built by Nero of himself as Sun God the site of a lake that was drained extensive water system underground to clean out bloody sand built of Travertine stone and concrete largest amphitheater in the Roman world 000000 00000 I held around 45k seated plus standing room