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CHEM 211 CH. 7

by: Briana Marcy

CHEM 211 CH. 7 CHEM 211-002

Briana Marcy
GPA 3.8

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General Chemistry 1
Paul Cooper
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 211-002 at George Mason University taught by Paul Cooper in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 11/13/15
CHEM 211 CH. 7- Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure The Wave Nature of Light The wave properties of electromagnetic radiation are described by three variables: -frequency- cycles per second -wavelength- the distance a wave travels in one cycle -amplitude- the height of a wave crest or depth of a trough *the speed of light is a constant: =3.00*10^8 m/s in a vacuum Energy and Frequency A solid object emits visible light when it is heated to about 1000 K. This is called blackbody radiation The color (and the intensity) of the light changes as the temp. changes. Color is related to wavelength and frequency, while temperature is related to energy Planck proposed that one certain quantities of energy can be emitted (or absorbed) The Quantum Theory of Energy Any object (including atoms) can emit or absorb only certain quantities of energy (hv) Energy is quantized, it occurs in fixed quantities, rather than being continuous. Each fixed quantity of energy is called a quantum (hv) An atom changes its energy state by emitting or absorbing one or more quanta of energy E= nhv where n can only be a whole number- the smallest change being where n=1 Eatom= hv= Ephoton The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom Bohr’s atomic model postulated the following:  The H atom had only certain energy levels, which Bohr called stationary states o Each state is associated w/ a fixed circular orbit of the electron around the nucleus o The higher the energy level, the farther the orbit is from the nucleus o When the H electron is in the first orbit, the atom is in its lowest energy state, called the ground state o The atom does not radiate energy while in one of its stationary states o The atom changes to another stationary state only by absorbing or emitting a photon  The energy of the photon (hv) equals the difference between the energies of the 2 energy states  When the E electron is in any orbit higher than n=1, the atom is in an excited state Matter and energy are alternate forms of the same entity ALL MATTER exhibits properties of both particles AND waves Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle states that it is not possible to to know the position and momentum of a moving particle at the same time -The more accurately we know the speed, the less accurately we know the position, and vice versa QUANTUM NUMBERS AND ATOMIC ORBITALS An atomic orbital is specified by three quantum numbers -The principal quantum number (n) is a positive integer The value of n indicates the relative size of the orbital and therefore its relative distance from the nucleus The angular momentum quantum number (l) is an integer from 0 *The value of l indicates the shape of the orbital The magnetic quantum number (m1) is an integer with values from –l to +l The value of m1 indicates the spatial orientation of the orbital


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