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Week 12- Chapters 37 & 40

by: Hayley Lecker

Week 12- Chapters 37 & 40 BIOL 1306/1106

Hayley Lecker
GPA 3.42
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi

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About this Document

Notes for chapters 37 and 40
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Lecker on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1306/1106 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 11/13/15
Biology Week 12 Important Information Professor s Email aidarrouzetnardiutepedu or anthonvdnutepedu All vocabulary will be defined at the end of the notes Zngte 20 Chapter 37 371 Sexual Reproduction Depends on Gamete Formation and Fertilization In Sexual reproduction the parents produce gametes that have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the body The gametes of the female parent are relatively large and nonmotile cells called eggs or ova Those of the male are small cells that swim typically using flagella and are called spermatozoa or sperm The gametes fuse to produce a singlecelled zygote that has a full set of chromosomes and develops into a sexually produced offspring See Image Left Gametes are produced by meiosis and therefore are diversified in their chromosomes and genes by independent assortment and crossing over The new individual that is formed when gametes fuse is not genetically identical to either parent In asexual reproduction offspring are produced by mitosis and are genetically identical to their parent and to one another Asexual reproduction produces no genetic diversity but has the advantages of maintaining favorable combinations of genes In sexually reproducing animals the male and female sexes differ in their primary reproductive organs accessory reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics The primary reproductive organs are the gonads the ovaries in females and testes in males The accessory reproductive organs are the reproductive organs other than the gonads The secondary sexual characteristics are sexspecific properties of nonreproductive tissues and organs such as facial hair chest hair and a deep voice in human males Gametogensis occurs in tests and ovaries where the germ cells proliferate mitotically then undergo meiosis to produce gametes Oo enesis A Spermatogenesis B 9 Germ cell Mitosis x O D l l gamete Polar bodies Meiosis l gt0 l maturation l O Sperm Ovum n n n FIGURE 374 Gametogenesis Male and female germ cells prom erate by mitosis to produce an abundant supply of diploid cells that initiate and complete meiosis to produce sperm or ova A Sperm atogenesis B Oogenesis During oogenesis in many animals me first polar body to be produced does not divide so only two polar bodies are produced in total 2n is the diploid number of chromo somes per cell n is the haploid number See Concept 74 for details of meiosis The gonads in addition to have germ cells and producing gametes typically contain somatic cells that contribute to reproduction n testes for example Sertoli cells assist sperm production and interstitial cells Leydig cells produce the sex hormone testosterone A 8 unnamed Lcydtg can m the ttssue m Vas deferens Wm tubules secrete testostm no Epodi Sperm mam l Wood M through the tears gyms We stored I Liz v quot r 73 xTcstls a a b Sperm develop continuousty Over the great tength of each seminiterous tubute C Lumen of midterm Each Sertoli cell envelops nourishes tubule sperm oroiect into it and protects develooing sperm J FIGURE 3 Ba Cell membrane iferous tul sement miu39ions c membrane Acrosmhe 8 Th of tubule V L erous u the Male germ psa cell 2n Mitochomna move f1 Wilhtn 3693668 Ubub with Ft Sertoli oeu umen Go tc POL sperm undergo u vas deferens a tu ejaculation see F located in the 5p Let s ocusm a germcells dur39m a 39 5 quotJ Semis 7 QA A Lumen of tubule An oocyte developing ovum and its support cells are together called an ovarian follicle The release of an ovum from the ovary is called ovulation Theca cells Granulosa oells 39 Obnceptarae 7 Stages of follicular maturation Fully mature Graafian follicle i E i F Ovulation of mature ovum g I by rupture 1 f x T gt a 1quot I I I Degenerating Ev quot Ruptured l corpus luteum WHO39S l 3 ElfM 61 l 2M 4 a A g s agtlt5f rm tiff21791 Ega ial gdmif lic39f i f r 7 V quotquoth A T r 3 r w RE 376 The Mammalian Ovary Showing Stage at Follicle o a a The stages of follicle devel0pment are shown in a a c K 3956 series starting at the upper left With a primordial follicle In ifquot man ovary a primordial follicle progresses through all these stag lthe course of approximately 28 dayS One39 menf mat CYClel A J n39 9 iprimordial follicle starts the next month The clockwise arrange for learning purposes only Follicles do not actually progress quot 75quot through an Y Y Fertilization the fusion of sperm and ovum can be external or internal External fertilization is common among aquatic animals To achieve fertilization these animals simply release their gametes into the water a process called spawning Fertilization then occurs in the water outside the female s body Internal fertilization occurs when a male inserts perm inside the reproductive tract of a female permitting fertilization to occur inside the female s body For fertilization to occur several steps must occur In many animals these steps include speciesspecific binding of sperm to protective material surrounding the ovum the acrosomal reaction the sperm s passage through the protective layers covering the ovum and the fusion of the sperm and ovum cell membranes The entry of a sperm into the ovum triggers blocks to polyspermy which prevent additional sperm from entering the ovum Sex determination is the process by which the sex of an individual becomes fixed In humans and other placental mammals sex is determined at fertilization and depends on which sex chromosomes the zygote receives from its parents In some animals sex is not determined at fertilization Some of these species exhibit environmental sex determination in which the sex of an individual is determined by the temperature it experiences during its embryonic development Some species are sequential hermaphrodites they can be males at one time and females at another during their lives 372 The Mammalian Reproductive System is Hormonally Controlled Somatic cells in the gonads produce steroid sex hormones The principal sex steroid in males is testosterone which is secreted by the interstitial cells in the testes In females the somatic cells of the ovarian follicles secrete feminizing steroids called estrogens After ovulation the follicular somatic cells remaining in the ovary reorganize to form a corpus luteum which secretes another type of female sex steroid progesterone which is involved principally in coordinating processes associated with pregnancy Ova mature in the female s ovaries and after release ovulation they enter the oviducts fallopian tubes Sperm deposited in the vagina during copulation move through the cervix and uterus into the oviducts where fertilization occurs Ova mature in and are released by the ovaries Oviduot Uterus fallopian tube I I 39 Tquot If v v39 4 W Front view 139 Ova released from the ovaries are taken K into the oviductS where they travel to l the uterus Fertilization occurs in the upper regions of the oviduct where development of the zygote begins FIGURE 3710 Reproductive Organs lt Human Female The female reproduct are shown A from the front and 13 frc Ligament Fimbria l Go to ACTIVITY 372 Ovary Endomemum g The blastocyst implants in The Human Female Reproductive 39 v the endometrium of the POL2e com I ac1372 Myomemum 3971 39 uterus where embryonic Cervix development continues The neck of the uterus is 39 39n the cervix which remains 39 ape 1 ed I closed during pregnancy 1t 18 propelled to ard the uterus b cozu ion The vagina is and dilates to allow and contractions 0t smooth musc also the birth canal Chl39dbmh Sperm are deposited in the v2 lar structure that opens to the or nnn akznn lcnvu r31 inhsw ni IND B Side View Ovary Oviduct Colon Urinary Uterus bladder Cervix Pubic bone Urethra Anus Clitoris Labia quot quotwa majora minora If fertilization has occurred the zygote undergoes its early development as it travels the length of the oviduct and arrives in the uterus as an early embryo called a blastocyst The blastocyst buries itself in the endometrium of the uterus a process called implantation Ovulation is either induced or spontaneous Induced ovulation is the ovulation triggered by copulation In spontaneous ovulation the timing of ovulation is under control of endogenous hormonal cycles in the female In most species of mammals that display spontaneous ovulation a female ovulates in cycles In primates these cycles are called menstrual cycles in recognition of the fact that menstruation the sloughing off of part of the endometrium occurs in each cycle that does not result in pregnancy Mammals other than primates do not menstruate Often however they undergo dramatic changes in behavior they cyclically enter estrus heat Their cycles accordingly are called estrous cycles The human menstrual cycle is under the control of hormones secreted by the hypothalamus anterior pituitary gland somatic cells in the ovarian follicle and the corpus luteum The uterus requires progesterone to support a pregnancy In humans chorionic gonadotropin secreted by the blastocyst signals the corpus luteum not to degenerate and instead to provide adequate progesterone for the first 7 to 10 weeks of pregnancy By then the placenta which also secretes progesterone is sufficiently well developed to take on this task The male reproductive organs produce and deliver semen Semen consists of sperm suspended in a fluid that nourishes the sperm and facilitates fertilization The fluid is produced by accessory reproductive glands such as the prostate gland Ureter from kidney Urinary bladder 391 v tit Arf 339ii539ate gland Urethra Glens penis Vas deferens Balboa Foreskin gland Epididymis Scrotum Testis FIGURE 3712 Re the right and left te skin the skin cover A Productive Organs of the Human Mate The two vas delete W Stes39 1039 at a 90th upstream from the single prostate gland quot 9 the glans of the penis is removed during circumcision Spermatogenesis depends on testosterone secreted by the interstitial cells of the tests which themselves are under the control of hormones produced in the anterior pituitary gland Methods of contraception include abstention from intercourse and the use of technologies that decrease the probability of fertilization and implantation 373 Reproduction ls Integrated with the Life Cycle Many animal species have evolved mechanisms of decoupling successive steps in the reproductive process Such mechanisms increase options for certain steps to be coordinated with environmental conditions independently of other steps These mechanisms include sperm storage and embryonic diapause which in mammals is called delayed implantation Some animals are semelparous each individual is physiologically programmed to reproduce only once in its lifetime Examples include octopuses and Pacific salmon Most animal species are iteroparous meaning that individuals are physiologically capable of two or more separate periods of reproductive activity during their lives In iteroparous animals that live in environments with regular seasonal cycles the reproductive cycle is nearly always timed to coordinate with the environmental seasonal cycle Chapter 43 401 Behavior ls Controlled by the Nervous System but Is Not Necessarily Deterministic Changes in behavior are an important way for animals to respond to changes in their environment An animal s behavior are activated and coordinated by the animal s nervous system Some animal behaviors called fixed action patterns are highly stereotyped They do not require learning and in fact are often resistant to modification by learning Animal behavior has a genetic basis and is subject to natural and artificial selection Behavior therefore evolves Behavior is often flexible it can be modified by an animal s experience 402 Behavior ls Influenced by Development and Learning Many animals are able to learn meaning that individuals can alter their behaviors on the basis of previous individual experiences Behavioral imprinting is a process by which an animal learns to respond to a specific set of stimuli during a limited period early in postnatal life and thereafter the behavioral responses are fixed Early experiences can affect the behavior of an animal for the remainder of its life Some of these effects are consequences of epigenetic effects on gene expression 403 Behavior ls Integrated with the Rest of Function Behavior and other aspects of animal function are interdependent the behavior of an animal is constrained by its physiological capacity to perform the required actions Body structure size and growth rate can influence behavior as can cellular biochemistry and metabolism 404 Moving Through Space Presents Distinctive Challenges Animals find their way in the environment by navigation moving toward a particular destination or along a particular course and orientation Adopting a position or trajectory relative to an environmental cue Animals sometimes navigates by following trails which in many cases are marked with pheromones Navigation may also involve path integration During this process an animal integrates the distances and directions it travels to maintain an awareness of its position relative to a particular site Animals may sense direction by using information on the sun magnetic fields landmarks and atmospheric polarization patterns A sun compass involves not only observing the sun s position but also knowing the time of day information that can be provided by a circadian biological clock Animals often have multiple redundant mechanisms of orientation Honey bees use a waggle dance to communicate the position of a food source relative to the hive w B FIGURE 4011 The Honey 3 Waggle Dance A A honeybee Apis mellifera worker runs straight up on the vertical surfacegf the honeycomb in a dark hive while wagging her abdomen to teubm workers in her hive that there is a food sourcelin the di39jr c o39n a the sun 8 When the waggle runs are at angle 7 from the vertical the that the39same angle 7 separates the direction arm source from the direction of the sun Some animals display remarkable feats of navigation when they migrate traveling as far as thousands of kilometers between locations 405 Social Behavior ls Widespread A society is a group of individuals of a single species that exhibits some degree of cooperative organization Group living confers benefits such as greater foraging efficiency and protection from predators but it also has costs such as increases competition for food and ease of transmission of diseases Individuals in a society can be of equal status as in a school of fish or of unequal status as in a group of impala antelopes In some cases of single male dominates the other males in a group this usually confers a reproductive advantage on the dominant male An extreme form of unequal status as seen in cases of eusociality in which some individuals in the group are infertile and assist the reproductive of fertile individuals usually their mother and a few male siblings Eusocial animals include the social insects eg honey bees and naked mole rats 406 Behavior Helps Structure Ecological Communities and Processes Behavioral differences help maintain species by decreasing the likelihood of interspecies breeding An individual within a population often restricts its movements to a limited portion of the area occupied by the population as a whole The smaller area is known as territory if the individual actively keeps out other individuals of the same species or as a home range if other individuals are not excluded A costbenefit approach can be used to investigate the adaptive value of specific behaviors


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