Constellations & Pluto
Constellations & Pluto AST 111
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Childers on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AST 111 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Christopher Sirola in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see General Astronomy in Physics 2 at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Constellations Cepheus amp Cassiopeia Cepheus and Cassiopeia are circumpolar constellations meaning they can be seen near the NCP all year long Cassiopeia distinguished by ve bright starts that make out a W or zigzag shape Cephes has slightly dimmer stars than Cassiopeia it looks like a child s drawing of a house The north star lies about halfway between the big dipper and Cassiopeia 0 Note the pointer stars of the Dipper o o o Science 0 When we last saw them Cepheus and Cassiopeia were chaining their daughter to a cliff to be sacri ced to the Kraken After Perseus rescues Andromeda everyone heads off to their wedding however so does Andromeda s former anc Andromeda s old ame and his buddies create such a scene that Perseus pulls out Medusa s head turning them to stone Unfortunately Cepheus amp Cassiopeia also look at the head They head back to Perseus island home where king Polydectes was trying to force Perseus mother Danae into marriage Perseus takes care of Polydectes in a now familiar manner and everyone lives happily ever after except Years later Perseus enters the Olympics His throw of the discus at rst looks like it will win but the discus is blown by the wind into an old man in the dead killing him instantly Recall Perseus story started when king Acrisius of Argos was told by an oracle that he would be killed by his grandson The old man hit was the old king Acrisius Perseus amp Andromeda become king and queen of Argos There great grandson was Hercules Cephied Variables Delta Cehpei is the namesake of the most important type of variable star Delta Cehpei is visible to the naked eye so is another famous Cepheid Polaris The stars variability was noticed in 1784 by john Goodncke The period Luminosityquot relationship of Cepheid was discovered by Henrietta Swan Leavitt in 1908 Brightness waflatin elf Meme 333 L 41 Magnitude Mann r nl l39hl39IHignilrltilj TIi39TI wasp3 This is a light curve for Delta Cepheid its brightness changes regularly over time Leavitt showed the periods of Cepheid s are directly related to their average luminosities Cepheid s change their luminosities by growing and shrinking they also change colors Cepheid s have been instrumental in determining distances to galaxies This work helps us determine the age amp size of the universe itself Supernova 1572 o The Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe observed a Stella Novaquot New star in 1572 in the constellation of C a s s i o p e i a 11 4714 Ca z39apm B 125 Stbedz39 C 139qule I emm 4d 111 I E Gum 39 F Per G tprama CatJ d media 714th H I N m rlllt 3 9 s z 5 B 34 Diffantiam verb 1mm ellze 4 xi aliquibm in lane Og iopziae cmzftellatiane exquiito in mmento U omnium minntorum capacj uli norm obmmui Ir ueni autem mm a ilm e ab ca gaze eff in pe fore Srbedir appellm B 7 parti my 55 milim iJ i geriari O Perri o Tycho showed that the new star lacked an observable parallax demonstrating it was not part of the Earth 0 The red bubble in the picture is an infrared image of SN 1572 taken by the VideField Infrared Survey WISE satellite SN 1572 800010000 light years away Gas expanded from the center at up to 9000kms It was as bright as Venus at its peak 0 This is a composite image combining zray and infrared images from several telescopes O o A type 1a suernova results when a whie dwarf pulls enough mass form a neighbor to push it past the limit of mass The progenitor of a Type la supernova which spills gas onto the Two normal stars The more massive secondary star causing it to are in a binary pair star becomes a giant expand and become engulfed 3C J The secondary lighter star The common envelope is I and the core of the giant ejected while the separation The remaining core of star spiral toward within between the core and the the giant collapses and a common envelope secondary star decreases becomes a white dwarf The aging companion I The white dlwarf39s mass star starts swelling spilling increases until it reaches a causing the companion gas onto the white dwarf critical mass and explodes star to be ejected away 0 These stars all evidence for the accelerating expansion of the universe Eris small planet roughly the size of Pluto farther out than Pluto Pluto 1801 Guiseppe Piazzi discovered Ceres which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter 0 Ceres was quickly hailed as the 8th planet 0 Ceres however was just a large asteroid in the region of the asteroid belt Ninth planet form the sun 40 AU Orbital period 248 years Rotational period 64 days Axial tilt 118 degrees Charon is Pluto s largest moon Pluto has ve moons in total Nix and hydra drawn to scale Styx Ca r10 n V J De nition of u o The object must be too small to generate energy though nuclear fusion The object must be massive enough to be spherical in shape Must orbit a star 4J3 O O Jupil l a H n E1LEEaJEUI an 15 r 1 if HENLIWE Z rand o Astronomers have long suspected of the existence of a doughnutshaped region beyond the orbit of Neptune Kuiper Belt due to short period comets 0 We now know of several relatively large objects including Sedna Quaoar Orcus and Eris o The discoverer of 2003 U8313 Mike Brown originally suggested the name Xena The IAU went wit Eris the goddess of discord o In the Myth all the gods were invited to the wedding Achilles parents except for Eris She threw out a golden apple for the most beautiful goddess This led directly to the Trojan War Eris orbital period 560 years Eris is larger than Pluto and also has a moon Astronomers had already been thinking about reclassi cation of Pluto In 2006 meeting in Prague to debate and vote on the de nition of Pluto O O 0000 lDysnomia Charon l lydra Nlix Hli iaka Niamaka 39 Weywot 39 3 a I l a a 1 Quaoar Sedna Haurnea lMakemake l l l Scale l 1000 km lxion valwna Airing
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