Chapter 11 & 12
Chapter 11 & 12 101 [DIVR] [K] General Anthropology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alanna Wight on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101 [DIVR] [K] General Anthropology at Washington State University taught by Erin Thornton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology 101 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Anthropology 101 Chapter 11 & Chapter 12 Lecture Notes Economy System of production, distribution, consumption & exchange -Anthro focuses on non-industrial societies -economic sphere less separate from social, political & religious spheres Distribution & Exchange Components of Exchange: -Economic gain -Social gain Items exchanged (non-market econ.): Food, Manufactured objects, Status, Alliances, Entertainment, Curing, Military assistance, Marriages Three main types of exchanges: 1.Reciprocity -exchange of goods/services of ~equal value (ex. Gift giving, food sharing) Emphasis on social relationship Generalized reciprocity: value uncalculated, repayment delayed & unspecified Balanced reciprocity: obligation to reciprocate in kind to maintain social relationship Example Reciprocity exchange: Kula ring -ceremonial exchange network Go out into the ocean to trade ritual goods Why? -gaining status, relationships, social status Reinforces social and political relations with trading partners (insurance) 2.Redistribution -Goods accumulated into central place and redistributed Leadership connection: -status/power display -make sure all have enough -alliance building (feats, gifts) Examples of Redistribution: Potlatch (NW Coast) For alliance building, and status Leveling mechanisms -keeps goods/money in circulation (vs. Hoarding) -pooled for collective benefit (ex. cinic, schools) -reduces social tension -source of prestige Case study: pitfalls in ecotourism development They prevent social inequality from growing 3.Market exchange -Buying & selling of goods/services with prices set by supply & demand -Money (often) -social or unsocial Example of Market exchange: Barter Exchange of goods and services without money Chapter 12: Marriage Anthropologists definition: Union between 2 or more individuals that establishes certain rights & obligations among the individuals, their children & their in-laws It establishes: sex, labor, property, children, alliance, status Relative importance of marriage: Nayar (SW India) -minor role in est. Family -3 transactions for sexual & marriage practice ritual husband Visiting husband(s) -gifts 3x a year, several men at a time Paternity via gift giving -may not be biological father, no economic or care obligations Choice of partners Incest taboo: -Cultural universal -But rules vary (ex. first cousins) Cousin Marriage (are 1 cousins always relatives?) -parallel cousins (child of father's brother or mother's sister) -cross cousins (child of father's sister or mother's brother) Moiety: 1 of 2 descent groups Exogamy: -outside particular group or category -Incest taboo -Alliance building Endogamy: Within particular group or category -ex. India's castle system -Homogamy: marrying someone with the same similar to you, sharing same traits, wealth, jobs etc. Forms of Marriage Monogamy -only 1 spouse -most common worldwide (based on number of couples) -serial monogamy Plural Marriages (polygyny) -man married to 2 plus women at the same time -most common across cultures -not all marriages are polygynous (status/wealth) Does not decrease women's rights Polyandry -women married to 2 or more men -very uncommon (<12 societies) -prevents fragmentation of land ownership among brothers -more male labor for family Group or Co-marriage -several men & women -very rare (ex. Inuit) -formal arrangement (not casual swapping) -obligations of mutual aid & support (vs.scarcity & risk) Same Sex marriage: Asxual: Nandi (W. Kenya) -2 female spouses Native American two-spirits Sexual: US & others Anthropology Perspective on Marriage: Not all 1 man and 1 woman