BSC197 Lecture Notes 11.9 - 11.13
BSC197 Lecture Notes 11.9 - 11.13 BSC197
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
BSC197 Lecture Notes 11915 111315 11915 Lecture Animal Form and Function 0 Like at the molecular level at higher levels form of structures determines function 0 The study of biological function 0 Integrates all levels of organization from molecules to the whole organism 0 Much physiology is studied at the cell or tissue Common Problems Obtaining nutrients from the environment Excreting undigestable material Obtaining oxygen for cellular respiration oxygen is the ultimate electron acceptor Removing waste C02 Moving molecules throughout the body to reach cells Excreting waste products of metabolism Detoxification Reproduction Protection form infection Sensing environment Coordinating cell function Homeostasis health 0 maintaining steady state of health 0 Optimal range of physiological conditions 0 Humans 370C pH 74 salt and glucose concentrations etc 0 Systems in place to keep these values in optimal range 0 Homeostasis is maintained in each system by a mechanism similar to a thermostat o No action when in optimal range 0 Corrective action when falling out of the range 0 Feedback regulation is very common Optimal Conditions Aren t Static 0 Optimal conditions may vary over time o Circadian rhythm is roughly a 24 hour cycle 0 Humans have changes throughout the day I Body temp drops overnight 0 Acclimation may also occur where physiology changes with increased exposure to conditions 0 High altitude 0 Extended dark 0 Cold Bodv Temperature 0 Enzymes in cells have optimal conditions in which they work 0 Temperature is a key component to determine 3D shape of proteins 0 Falling out of optimal temperature range decreases rate of enzyme activity Maintaining Body Temperature 0 warmblooded regulator o Requires significant metabolic activity to maintain temp well over environmental conditions I The requires large nutrient intake 0 Needs to be closely regulated to keep temp in optimal range 0 coldblooded conformer o Requires less metabolic activity but does require using external factors 0 Sunlight convection conduction shade evaporation etc all can play a part 0 Sometimes conditions do not allow maintenance of optimal temperature I Overall activity declines until better conditions occur Examples of FormFunction Relationships in Temperature Regulation 0 Heat exchange by counter current ow of blood 0 Animals that live in cold aquatic environments retain core heat 0 Blood coming to core from extremities is heated by nearby arteries carrying warm blood from core 0 Cooling by evaporation o Longer thinner limbs provide more surface areavolume and better cooling 0 Sweat glands wet skin and increase cooling effect Human Thermoregulation 0 When warm 0 Capillaries in skin widen vasodilation I Allows better blood ow to skin I Flushed appearance 0 Muscles around sweat glands contract I Wets skin cooling by evaporation 0 When cold 0 Capillaries restrict decreasing heat loss in blood 0 Large muscles receive signal to contract quickly I Shivering I Metabolic activity warms the body 0 Cell metabolism is an engine for heating mm 0 decreased activity and metabolism when temperature is not favorable 0 Cold hibernation 0 Heat estivation 0 energy requirements to remain active in extreme cold are very high 0 To avoid this some animals hibernate o Decrease metabolic activity I 120th of normal base activity 0 Normal circadian rhythm plays little effect I Hibernation overrides circadian rhythm 111115 Lecture Animal Nutrition 0 Animals are heterotrophs so they have to obtain energy through eating other organisms 0 Three types of organisms as defined by their diets I extensively eat plants extensively eat other animals eat both plants and animals 0 Humans are typically omnivores Input from Eating 0 The diet of an animal must supply three basic components 0 calorie content I Used in cellular respiration to produce ATP 0 to produce building blocks of macromolecules I Protein polysaccharides nucleic acids lipids o vitamins and minerals I Required for optimal function of processes Essential Nutrients 0 An animals can t produce these on their own and need to get them from their diet 0 humans can only synthesize produce 1220 amino acids 0 Remainder come from food serve as precursors for phospholipids and steroids 0 Found in meat dairy eggs grains and nuts Vitamins and Minerals 0 molecules that aid in biological processes 0 Diseases associated With insufficient vitamin intake I Scurvy C I Rickets D 0 Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins I B vitamins usually cofactors for enzymes I Vitamin C is involved in biosynthesis of connective tissue I Vitamin D helps absorb and use calcium I Vitamin K helps With blood clotting injection to newborns 0 Calcium phosphorous sodium iron iodine etc Undernutrition o The consumption of too few calories 0 Body will begin breaking down muscles for fuel 0 Current estimate by WHO is 820 million people are undernourished Malnutrition 0 The consumption of too few essential nutrients 0 Lack of protein is most common worldwide I Ricebased diets not good 0 Vitamin and mineral malnutrition are next I Vitamin A deficiency is a worldwide problem Processing Food 0 Mechanical and chemical processes are used for animals to access nutrients from food 0 Four main steps 0 eating or feeding I Filter feeding substrate feeding bulk feeding or uid feeding o breaking down the food into absorbable molecules I Mechanical and chemical digestion both occur 0 uptake of small molecules by the animal s cells 0 undigested material passes through digestive system Digestion 0 The chemicals and enzymes used in digestion could cause harm to the animal s cells so they are contained Digestion takes place in specialized compartments within the animal 0 Some animals have a cul de sac for digestion called a gastrovascular cavity 0 Food is processed in batches I Food enters mouth food is processed and absorbed waste is eliminated via the mouth Alimentary Canals 0 Most animals have an internal tube with openings at each end called with alimentary canal 0 There may be elaborate modified chambers along the tube and even some accessory components that branch off from the tube 0 Movement of material occurs by involuntary muscle contraction called peristalsis 0 Movement from one compartment to another is controlled by muscular valve called sphincters 111315 Lecture Mouth 0 digestion begins immediately 0 Chewing mechanically breaks food into smaller pieces 0 Saliva contains enzymes called amylases that breakdown starches o Mucus protects mouth and allows food to move through the system more easily 0 Food passes from the mouth to the esophagus when swallowed I Entry into the trachea is blocked by the epiglottis and glottis Stomach o Digestion continues in the stomach 0 Gastric juice is secreted by cells that line the stomach 0 Extremely acidic pH 2 o Enzymes that degrade macromolecules like proteases 0 Mucus protects stomach tissue form gastric juice 0 Gastric ulcers result in exposed areas of tissue I Thought to be caused by stress and diet but now known to be caused by bacterial infection in stomach 0 Strong muscles surrounding the stomach keep churning the mix called chime Small Intestine Digestion 0 Much of digestion and almost all of absorption occur here 0 Digestion o Digestion of macromolecules occurs with help from accessory organs I Pancreas produces amylases proteases nucleases and lipases 0 Also produces bicarbonates which neutralize pH of chime I Liver produces bile which aids in utilization of lipids 0 Stored in gallbladder until secreted into small intestine I Small intestine produces digestive enzymes itself I Some molecules are modified with the help of bacteria that live in the small intestine Small Intestine Absorption 0 Absorption of nutrients occurs at the surface area of the small intestine 0 Highly convoluted structures maximize surface area I Large villi of cells that possess microvilli on their surface 0 Nutrients are absorbed by the cells at their apical surface and exit the basal surface to enter blood vessels I Travel to the liver then throughout the body 0 The liver detoxifies and also makes decisions about nutrient distribution Large Intestine o Primarily involved in reabsorption of water 0 most of the length of the organ 0 As undigested material moves the cells remove water 0 Feces gets drier and firmer as it moves along 0 end of large intestine 0 Holding place for feces until defecation via the anus o involved in immune function and also archive for ora normal gut bacteria Evolutionary Adaptations to Diet 0 Evolutionary adaptations result in anatomical changes based on diet 0 Different teeth are optimal for plant or animal food sources 0 Camivores tend to have short intestines compared to herbivores o The serves little role in carnivores and omnivores but is extensive in herbivores I It harbors mutualistic microorganisms that help digest plant material more efficiently 0 Cows have highly modified stomachs with four distinct chambers to improve digestion of plant cellulose Animal Circulation 0 Cells need to obtain nutrients and oxygen and get rid of waste products and C02 0 There needs to be exchange of good and bad material 0 Some animals handle material exchange by having extremely high surface area to volume ratio 0 Diffusion from aquatic environment drives exchange Circulatory Systems 0 Most animals have a circulatory system that does deliveriespickups o Diffusion is still important 0 Types of circulatory systems 0 called is not always contained in the circulatory system I Leaks out and acts as uid surrounding cells intestinal uid I Exchange of molecules between hemolymph and cells I Eventually hemolymph drains to collection points called sinuses I Hemolymph in sinuses is syphoned back into circulatory system 0 Like a straw o blood stays in blood vessels and exchange of molecules occurs by movement across the walls of the blood vessels I Blood doesn t just leak out and surround tissue normally Human Cardiovascular System 0 Called cardiovascular system because it is made up on a heart and blood vessels 0 The is a muscular organ that pumps blood through the blood vessels 0 Most of the exchange of material occurs in thin blood vessels called capillaries 0 Multiple capillaries in close proximity form structures called capillary beds 0 are blood vessels that take blood from the heart towards capillary beds I h are smaller branches of arteries are blood vessels that take blood from capillary beds towards the heart I are smaller branches of veins O
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