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Biology 106 11/11 and 11/13

by: JustAnotherStudent

Biology 106 11/11 and 11/13 Biology 106- Organismal Biology

GPA 3.55

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About this Document

November 9th and 13th notes, no class on the 11th
Biology 106
Dr. Cousins & Dr. Carloye
Class Notes
Biology, WSU, BIO 106, reproduction
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Carloye in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.

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Date Created: 11/13/15
Biology 106 November 9, 2015 Animal Reproduction Another Example of Negative Feedback via antagonistic hormones: Regulation of Calcium Thyroid gland releases calcitonin  Calcitonin  Reduces Ca+2 uptake in kidneys (so more ends up in urine) OR  Stimulates Ca+2 deposition in bones Blood Ca+2 level declines to set point  Homeostasis Blood Ca+2 (about 10mg/100ml) Either Rising blood Ca+3 level And Falling blood Ca+2 level  Parathyroid gland  PTH stimulates Ca2+ release from bones And Stimulates Ca2+ uptake in kidneys- keeps it in blood Active intake vitamin D  increase Ca+2 uptake in intestines bringing more into blood Blood Ca2+ level rises to set point Asexual Reproduction Budding: Branching off of parent Regeneration: generating missing parts from body fragmentation (starfish) Parthenogenesis: production of offspring from unfertilized egg - Some results in haploid individuals (male honeybees) - Some duplicate the chromosomes to make the egg diploid Advantageous in a stable environment - Genetic combination is successful Sexual Reproduction Gametes from two individuals fuse - Male cell = sperm - Female cell = egg or ovum Gametes = special cells with just 1 full set (n) of chromosomes Fusion of gametes restores full set of paired chromosomes (2n) External Fertilization - Requires moist environment for sperm to swim to egg - Typically produces LOTS of gametes to ensure that SOME will succeed - Don’t put much energy into each gamete (low investment) - Need wat to synchronize gamete release (timing) Creates a “soup” of cells Mechanisms’ to ensure that sperm and eggs of same species get together - Chemical cues - Physical “lock and key” between proteins on surface of each Internal Fertilization Moist internal environment Sperm swim to egg in special reproductive organs - Increases fertilization success Typically produce FEWER gametes Give more energy per gamete – increases chances of survival Making Sperm - Seminiferous tubule - Leydig cells - Sertoli cell - Spermatogonium - Spermatocyte Anatomy of a Sperm - Acrosome - Nucleus - Centrioles - Mitochondria - Head - Sidepiece - Flagellum Hormonal Control of Reproduction: Sperm Formation Making Eggs (ova) - Ova develop in ovary - Surrounded by smaller cells o Together = follicle November 13, 2015 Remember there is an exam on Friday after break. Hypothalamus secrets GnRH  Pituitary gland releases FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) follicle in one of the ovaries  starts to mature and release Estrogen (estradiol)  pituitary gland, reduces output of FSH  estrogen peak stimulates LH burst  pituitary gland releases LH burst (luteinizing hormone)  target tissue in the ovary, the follicle release the ovum, ovulation empty follicle w/out egg (Corpus luteum),  progesterone & some estrogen target tissue is in the brain stop hormones, buys time to see if fertilization happens Structure of an ovum (egg) External fertilization Inner: cell membrane surrounds ovum Mid: Vitelline envelope Outer: Jelly coat Internal fertilization Inner: cell membrane Mid: zona pellucida Outer: cumulus (follicle cells around egg) Animal development Basic steps 1. Fertilization (only step with two separate players) 2. Cleavage 3. Gastrulation 4. Neurulation & Organogenesis Step 1: Fertilization Both sperm and ovum have a response to the encounter Sperm: Acrosomal reaction Ovum: cortical reaction Acrosomal Reaction 1. Contact triggers release of enzymes- digests jelly coat 2. Proteins on sperm head bind ovum membrane proteins 3. Sperm cell & ovum cell fuse causing changes inside the ovum 4. Sperm head breaks from tail and enters ovum cytoplasm At this point the ovum must block other sperm from initializing fertiliation


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