Chp. Seven: The Cellular Basis of Life
Chp. Seven: The Cellular Basis of Life 181
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Brown on Friday November 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 181 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Lisenbee in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biological Sciences at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Chapter Seven: The Cellular Basis of Life -Cells are the fundamental units of life Can we break down a cell into a simpler component? No, the cell is the simplest form. Cell is a highly organized biological compartment bounded by a plasma membrane Implications of Cell Theory All Organisms are made of cells Cells come from pre-existing cells Examples: Baby’s cells come from the mother and the father cells. It started off as just one cell Because all cells come from pre-existing cells, individuals in a population their cells are related to their ancestry. Studies of Cells Reveal Two Types There are two Structural Features: Prokaryotes KNOWN BY THEIR NEGATIVE TRAIT- THE ABSENCE OF A NUCLEUS Lack a membrane bound nucleus Some have a tail named “flagella”, make them move. Surrounded by plasma Membrane that encloses the cytoplasm Have few to internal membranes Tough Cell wall that protect cells and give the shape and structure Contain: Ribsomes & chromosome CHROMOSOMES CONTAIN GENETIC INFORMATION Cytoskeleton gives the cell it’s structure Much simpler Can be any shape, but normally smaller Eukaryotes KNOWN AS THE CELL WITH A NUCLEUS Chromosomes are found inside a membrane bound compartment called nucleus Often much Larger Have more internal structures, they have organelles Feature more diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton Much More Complex Compartments Organize We can see what type of cell one is, that is due to their system and can tell their function. Nucleus -Highly organized -Separate Compartments -Black Spot- Nucleolus -Surrounded by a nuclear enevelope They have a nuclear pores, they act like gates -Ribsomes build protein outside Nuclear pores are a built gate Molecules go through them -Messenger RNAs and cytoplasm are synthesized but they can leave. But the cytoplasm to the nucleus sends protein and histones to get to the nucleus. They have a zip code (NLS- Nuclear localization signal) Where is the “zip code”? The tail has the signal! The zipcode is built in the proteins. Some go to cytosol, mitochondria etc and the Amino Acids. - Protein targeting Defects are Knownas: o Zellweger syndrome o Adrenoleuko Dystrophy That’s why we are learning this. You need to know why the protein is doing his job and or going here. Mitochondria The Powerhouse of the cell makes ATP Production -Two Membranes Cristae Mitochondrial Matrix They have their own DNA and Ribsome Chloroplasts In most plants and Algal cells - They grow and divide independently - OWN DNA AND RIBSOMES They concept light to chemical energy SUGAR IS MADE NOT ATP! Peroxisomes Global organelles only one membrane -Function varies by Cell type LECTURE 2 SLIDE #11 The Endomembrane System is a primary system for protein and lipid synthesis and secretin. It consists of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and several accessory vesicles and organelles. Ribosomes and Rough ER Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes are made of RNA and protein. They job is to synthesize proteins. They are found in: -Cytosol, the fluid part - The outer surface of the Rough ER When the protein goes through the ER then it goes to the Golgi to grab some sugar and then starts to exit the plasma membrane to go out the cell to do what it has to do. When the Protein is going into the Golgi apparatus the protein is coming in from a vesicle and comes in to the Cis face travels through and ends up at the end of the Golgi, which is called the trans face. And then jumps on a another vesicle. Smooth ER Lacks ribosomes and is responsible for the synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids. Lysomsomes are single membrane bound centers for storage and or waste. It’s like the stomach of the Cell. Phagocytosis, autophagy and receptor-mediated endocytosis ^ means taking stuff in. Cytoskeleton Is a complex network of three different fibers: Actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and mircotubes Functions: -Maintain cell shape by providing structural support -Transport materials (including organelles) within the cell -Participates in cell movement and communication Actin Filaments Smallest cytoskeleton elements are actin filaments, also known as MICROFILAMENTS , composed of globular protein called ACTIN They are long bundles that are twisted together. They help define the shape Intermediate Filaments Are defined by size instead of by composition. -Consist of Protein -Provide structural support for the cell, but are NOT INVOLVED IN THE CELL MOVEMENT Mircotubules They are relatively huge and hollow TUBES Composed of globular protein called TUBULIN They provide stability and movement and framework for organelles They act as a “railroad track” THEY HELP THE VESICLES GO PLACE The vesicles are moving along the Mircotublues doing a KINESIN The proteins are actually walking across them going to the other organelles. Flagella and Cilia Flagella are the tails, moving the cell BACTERIAL FLAGELLA ARE HOLLOW and made of flagellin protein, rotating like a propeller EURKARYOTIC FLAGELLA are bundles of mircotubles. Waving back and forth Cilia are short haired and are related to flagella. Cells generally have one or two flagella. A Amino Acids- General Structure -All proteins are roughly composed of about 21 different amino acids. -All amino acids have a central carbon atom that is attached by covalent bonds to an amine group, carboxylic acid group, and then there a hydron atom a variable side chain. - The amino acids differ only in the variable side chain (R- group) attached to the central carbon atom. o They are more reactive when they have the groups like the acids and stuff rather than the ones that are composed of carbon and hydrogen. - Side chains also dictate an amino acids interactions with water. - WATER IS THE KEY Isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures. There are three main types: Structural isomers Differ in the order in which their atoms are attached Geometrtic isomers differ in the arrangement of atoms around a double bond Optical isomers differ in the arrangement of atoms or groups aound carbon atom that has four different groups attached. All amino acids have optical isomers and cells primarily utilize only “ left handed forms for protein synthesis. Proteins will have a backbone Secondary structure Aphla Helices and a B-pleated
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