MCSNotes03-30-16.pdf Speech 2050
Popular in Media, Culture and Society
Popular in Speech
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Spears on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Speech 2050 at Georgia State University taught by Bellon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Media, Culture and Society in Speech at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Media Economics (Chapter 13) Some Basic Economic Terms monopoly: a single firm dominates production and distribution oligopoly: just a few firms dominate an industry limited competition: many producers and sellers, but only a few different products economies of sale: as production levels increase, cost per unit goes down Regulation and Deregulation The industrial revolution of the late 1880's produced many anticompetitive business practices In 1890, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which outlawed monopolies and other anticompetitive practices In 1914, Congress passed the Clayton Antitrust Act, which stopped businesses from selling only to those who rejected competitors' products. Starting with the Carter administration in the 1970's however, the federal government began a trend of deregulation that continues today This has led to mixed results in the media sector, which include: o Much higher prices for some products o Consolidation of ownership (merges, etc.) o Large companies tend to diversify across an entire industry to avoid antitrust laws o An increase in the availability of low-wage jobs at the expense of higher paying middle range jobs o An increase in compensation for top- level employees Global Economics The media economy was always global What makes today's global media economy different is "the extension of synergy to international levels." Synergy is when the interaction of multiple elements is greater than the sum of its parts. o In media economics, this means the way corporations buy multiple products or companies to take advantage of their interaction For example, companies that produce the hardware to play video content also buy companies that produce th content for that hardware. There are downsides to international synergy, however. Cultural imperialism: American culture dominates the media, crowding out local alternatives Because many American media products (like TV shows) make a profit domestically, thy can be sold internationally at a cheap price This makes it hard for locally produced media products to compete People in other countries react negatively when our culture is overrepresented in their media, or when their children begin adopting our cultural values The Internet (Chapter 2) No one invented the Internet. Definition of the Internet The global information system that: 1. is linked together by a globally unique address space 2. supports global communications using TCP/IP Specifies how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and received Involves packet switching: breaking data down into small pieces for easier routing 3. provides both public and private services via the communications infrastructure The Internet is an open system An Internet Timeline The basic idea of the Internet was conceived around 1962: social interactions that could be enabled through computer networking o This "galactic network" was envisioned by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT Early work on packet switching was conducted both in the US and the UK o It was the British version that ended up inspiring US researchers to propose and then build their first packet- switching computer network Early Internet technology (but not the actual Internet) was developed by the military (DARPA) around 1969. o This was not technically an Internet because it was only one network, not a connection of networks. Email was invented in 1971 Microprocessors were also introduced in 1971, allowing the development of personal computers o Miniature circuits that process and store electronic signals The basic Internet was well established by 1985 The early Internet did NOT include the Web The World Wide Web The Web was invented in the early 1990's largely by one man: a scientist named Tim Berners-Lee He was working in a physics lab in Switzerland The heart of the Web is a simple language called "html" that allows computers to translate packets of digital data into various kinds of media (not just text) Why the Internet is Open The Internet was built on the concept of open architecture: o The standards and protocols of the system are public, and are designed to make it easy for different computers and networks to interconnect A key requirement is that networks don't have to change to be connected to the Internet. o A related concept you will often hear is open source, but that's different. Open source is when someone owns the copyright to something (like computer software), but releases that right and the software's source code so everyone can study, change, or distribute it for their own use.