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Fourth Day of Notes 1/26/15

by: Sara Johnston

Fourth Day of Notes 1/26/15 Bios 3110

Marketplace > Bios 3110 > Fourth Day of Notes 1 26 15
Sara Johnston
GPA 3.38
Human Anatomy

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Human Anatomy
One Day of Notes
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This 8 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Sara Johnston on Thursday January 29, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to Bios 3110 at a university taught by Williams in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 230 views.

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Date Created: 01/29/15
Lecture Four 12615 Fascia Pectoral Fascia 1 Continuous with anterior abdominal wall fascia 2 Pectoralis Minor has components of fascia by the ligaments a Holds muscle structures where they belong b Helps keep muscles in place c Cannot stabilize with fascia Axillary Fascia 1 Continuous with Pectoral fascia Clavipectoral Fascia 1 Deep 2 Descends from clavicle Deltoid Fascia 1 Continuous with pectoral fascia 2 Keeps the Deltoid muscle as a nice separate unit a Split into separate compartments 3 Attached to scapula 4 Osseoflbrous compartments a Subscapular b Suprapinous c Infraspinous Brachial fascia 1 Deep fascia 2 Splits the arm into Anterior and Posterior compartments that lead to a major functional difference 3 Intermuscular septum a Flexor Anterior amp Extensor Posterior compartments b Function amp nerve innervation Antebrachial fascia l Forearm 2 Separated by interosseous membrane 3 Continues into flexor amp extensor retinaculae palmar fascia of hand 4 5 We have an additional piece of fascia in the forearm because we have two bones Radius and Ulna Need to keep the muscles in place so they don t slip between the bones Extends the amount of space where you can insert muscles in the forearm Reduces the amount of force and friction that allows you to use that energy to do work Axillary Artery and Veins Axillary Artery 1 Lateral border of 1st rib Inferior border of Teres major Posterior to Pectoralis Minor Becomes Brachial Artery Axillary artery is the major blood vessel in the arm and it continues into the Brachial artery Axillary Vein l 2 3 4 Anteromedial side of artery Formed by brachial vein amp Basilic vein Becomes subclavian vein Veins a Variable b Anastomose Axillary Artery and Veins Artery is less protected if the arm is abducted 1 Position of the arm either protects vessels or exposes them Joints have a lot of demands on nutrients and blood 1 2 They need good blood flow for synovial uid Energy costs high for joints Compression to reduce bleeding 1 Wound Axillary vein exposed when arm is abducted a Blood loss b Air emboli Anastomoses l Communicating arteries or collateral blood vessels 2 Can be in either veins or arteries 3 If you are trying to supply an area with lots of blood and want to deliver it quickly you would probably have anastomoses in your artery 4 Collateral circulation 5 Slow occlusion a Vascular stenosis narrowing from atherosclerotic lesions b Prevent ischemia 6 Abrupt occlusion a Inadequate collateral circulation 7 Changes blood ow and allows for additional routes Muscle atrophy is actively going to hinder muscle movement in the future 1 By letting cell structures die then you are changing how that muscle area functions Blood Supply Brachial artery 1 Comes from Axillary Artery 2 Inferior border of the Teres Maj or to the cubital fossa 3 Pulse medial Bicipital groove 4 Brachial artery splits into muscular branches that feed the muscles themselves and splits into the nutrient artery that provides nutrients in the bones 5 Branches a Muscular branches amp humeral nutrient artery b Profunda Brachii artery c Superior amp inferior ulnar collateral arteries d Form periarticular arterial anastomoses of elbow Brachial Artery Occlusion or laceration l Ischemia leads to paralysis of muscles Within hours of paralysis brous scar tissue forms and then muscles shorten permanently a FleXion deformity Ischemic compartment syndrome Volkmann ischemic contracture 2 Compression to control hemorrhage a Middle of arm Distal to inferior ulnar collateral artery b With all of the anastomoses it s hard to treat hemorrhages When a muscle cell is going through death and being replaced by scar tissue the scar tissue isn t going to have the same properties as the muscle It can t contract c Anastomoses provide collateral circulation d Ischemia occurs if clamping is proximal to deep artery Blood Supply Brachial Veins 1 Two main sets 2 Super cial veins a Cephalic b Basilic 3 Brachial Vein a Paired deep 4 Visible in people that don t have very dark complexion Venous Drainage Cephalic amp Basilic veins 1 2 Main super cial veins Originate from dorsal venous network a Subcutaneous tissue on dorsum of hand b Perforating veins Communication between super cial and deep veins Median Cubital Vein a Continuous Cephalic Vein b Crosses obliquely across cubital fossa Lymphatic Drainage Lymphatic plexuses 1 Skin amp ngers 2 Drain into super cial lymphatic vessels Cubital lymph nodes 1 Proximal to medial epicondyle 2 Terminate in humeral axillary lymph nodes Apical axillary lymph nodes 1 Drains lymphatic vessels around cephalic vein Lymphatic system is like a plumbing system 1 If we didn t use the lymphatic system then we would end up with excessive uid out in the body somewhere Lymphatic system should not have red blood cells Lymphatic drainage monitors the blood to make sure there isn t anything bad in it 1 The monitoring takes place in lymph nodes under your armpit in your neck Axillary Lymph Nodes Pectoral nodes 1 Anterior Thoracic wall breast 2 Closer to the breast tissue and Pectoralis muscles 3 Anterior Subscapular nodes 1 Posterior aspect of thoracic wall amp scapular region 2 Closer to the back Humeral nodes 1 Monitor drainage coming from the arm 2 Upper limb a Except vessels running with the Cephalic vein Central nodes Apical nodes Lymph Nodes Lymphangitis 1 In ammation of lymphatic vessels 2 Causes warm red streaks in skin 3 Infection in the upper limb a Humeral nodes 4 Infection in pectoral region and breast a Axillary nodes Axillary nodes 1 Common site of metastases spread of breast cancer a Axillary nodes enlarge b Remove node and may need to excise part of axillary vein Lymphedema l Blockage of vessels or removal of lymph nodes If a cell is reproducing way faster than it should be then we know it s a tumor Lymphatic system prevents us form outside things and cancers Check lymph nodes to see how far the infection has spread Nerves Brachial Plexus l Formed by anterior rami C5Tl spinal nerves 2 Supplies most of the cutaneous nerves of the upper limb 3 Motor of upper limb 4 Posterior Cord becomes the Radial Nerve Cervical Plexus l Cutaneous nerves of the shoulder 2 Anterior rami of ClC4 3 Deep to sternocleidomastoid muscle Nerves bundle together which help with redundancy Cutaneous Nerves Dermatomes 1 Help us be able to decide what type of muscle damage has occurred 2 The loss of function of a whole muscle group is very rare because of the redundancy of nerves Brachial Plexus Network of Nerves Supplies upper limb Lateral Cervical Region to Axilla Anterior rami CSTl 1 Roots 2 Pass between anterior amp middle Scalene with Subclavian Artery Sympathetic bers 1 Carried by each root 2 Most of the nerves are under Sympathetic innervation 3 From gray rami of middle amp inferior cervical ganglia 4 Fight or Flight Entire structure passes under Pectoralis Minor Trunk 1 Superior a C5 and C6 Roots 2 Middle a C7 Roots 3 Inferior a C8 and T1 Roots Divisions 1 Anterior a Flexor compartment 2 Posterior a Extensor compartment Cords 1 Lateral cord a Anterior divisions of superior and middle trunks 2 Medial cord a Anterior division of interior trunk 3 Posterior cord a Posterior division of all 3 trunks


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