PSY 335 Week 12 Notes
PSY 335 Week 12 Notes PSY 335
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bria Harris on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
PSY 335 Lecture Notes November 10th and 12th Contributions to Psychology Emphasis on kids as active seekers of information about the social world Weaknesses Too incomplete to account Does not say much about biological factors Ecological Theories Ethological Evolutionary BioecologicalBronfenbrenner Consists of microsystem immediate environment mesosystem exosystem macrosystem US culture democracy and chronosystem changes in environment over time Child Maltreatment Child maltreatment is one of the most serious threats to child development in the US Maltreated children have less secure relationships with parents show les empathy amp less selfesteem amp more con icts with peers amp difficulties with academic work in elementary school In adolescence and adulthood individuals with a history of maltreatment are at risk for developing serious psychopathologies Ecosystem ADHD 5 8 of kids in USgt are diagnosed with ADHD Causes genetics neural connectivity environmental factors ADHD Symptoms Parents behavior towards child How are children treated by others Treatment includes family doctor drugs government Chronosystem Children sitting in class all day Current Perspectives Bioecological Model Made important contributions to thinking about development but can be criticized for is general omission of specific biological factors Emotional Development Objectives Why do people have emotions At what ages to kids begin to experience amp express different emotions How do children regulate their emotions When do children begin to understand other people s emotions What is Emotion For developmentalists emotion is complex 1 Physiological factors heart rate amp breath rate hormone levels 2 Subjective feelings 3 Cognitions that may elicit or accompany subjective feelings 4 Desire to take action including the desire to escape approach or change people or things in an environment Emotional Intelligence Being able to motivate oneself amp persist in the face of frustration Control impulses amp delay gratification Identify and understand one s own amp others feelings Regulate one s mood Regulate the expression of emotion in social interactions Empathize with others emotions The Development of Emotions in Childhood The emergence of emotion in the early years and childhood Discrete Emotions Theorist nature something innate in kids that brings about emotion Functionalist Approach nurture why do we have emotion to elicit tings from the environment Expressing Emotions Andreia and Colin Example When reviewing the situation between the two joy anger and surprise all appeared These are considered basic emotionsquot Emotion is the language od a person s mental state of being they are tied to the person s internal physical and external social sensory feeling Why Do People Feel Emotions Modern research suggests that emotions are useful because they help people adapt to their environment Eg You re walking down a dark street late one night you become frightened How does this affect your behavior The fear is adaptive because it allows you to organize your behavior around an important goal avoiding behavior Basic Emotions on anger surprise interest disgust distress sadness and fear are classified as basic emotionsquot DraghLorens 2001 Basic emotions are experienced by people worldwide amp each consists of 3 elements 1 Subjective feeling 2 Physiological change 3 Overt behavior Eg Wake up to the sound of a thunderstorm amp then discover your roommate took your umbrella how would you feel Positive Emotions Smiling is the 1St clear sign of happiness that infants express Young infants smile from their earliest days but the meaning of their smiles appears to change with age Social smiles are directed toward people and first emerges as early as 6 to 7 weeks of age At about 7 months smile primarily at familiar people rather than people in general After about 3 or 4 months of age infants laugh as well as smile During the second year of life children start to clown around amp are delighted when they can make other people laugh Negative Emotions The 1St negative emotion that is discernable in infants is generalized distress By 2 months of age facial expressions of anger or sadness can be differentiated from distress pain in some contexts By the 2nd year of life differentiating between infants anger amp other negative emotions is no longer difficult Fear amp Distress 4 months children seem wary of unfamiliar objects 6 to 7 months initial signs of fear begin to appear Fear of strangers intensifies amp lasts until age 2 Fear of novel toys loud noises amp sudden movements all decline after 12 months of age Stranger Wariness At this time infants begin to realize that all people are not the same and that the relationship they have with their primary caregivers is special How wary an infant feels around strangers depends of a number of factors Infants tend to be less fearful of strangers When environment is familiar Given time to warm upquot to strangers Prefer females to males Separation Anxiety 8 months Distress experienced by children when they are separated or expect to be separated from individuals to whom they are emotionally attached Fear that increases from 8 to 13 or 15 months and then declines This pattern is observed across many cultures Separation anxiety video Development of Complex Emotions In addition to the basic emotions people feel complex emotions such as embarrassment pride guilt and shame These are known as self conscious emotionsquot that involve feelings of success when one s standards are met amp feelings of failure when they are not The SelfConscious Emotions Includes guilt shame embarrassment and pride Relate to our senses of self amp our consciousness of others reaction to us Emerge during the 2nd year of life 15 to 24 months of age embarrassment when they are made the center of attention By 3 years of age children s pride is tied to their level of performance Normal Emotional Development in Childhood Peers and achieving goals become increasingly important sources of happiness amp pride Fears are related to real life issues rather than imaginary creatures Perception of others motives and intentions are important in determining whether or not hey will be angered Children overall become less intense amp less emotionally negative in the preschool amp early school years eg tantrums as kid s age we see this less Development of Emotional Regulation Emotional regulation Process of initiating inhibiting or modulating internal feeling states emotion related processes and emotionrelated cognitions or behaviors in the service of accomplishing one s goals Long slow process Children differ in how well they can do this even after they grow up a little Jimmy Kimmel video of parents telling kids they ate their Halloween candy Shift from Caregiver Regulation to SelfRegulation 1St moths parents help infants regulate their emotions Swaddle shhh sway Video of baby crying By 6 moths infants can reduce their distress own their own a little A little help from friends Video of cat soothing baby Between ages 1 and 2 infants turn their attention to nondistressing objects or people to distract themselves from sources of distress Over the first few years more likely to rely on themselves rather than their parents when they are upset Related to maturation of the neurological system Also increases in adults expectations of children and their age related improvement in the ability to inhibit motor behavior Use of Cognitive Strategies to Control Negative Emotions Younger children distract themselves with play Older children employ cognitive strategies such as distracting themselves from negative events or trying to see things in a positive light As children age they are better able to use cognitive strategies to adjust to emotionally difficult situation Marshmallow Task used strategies such as smelling touching and not looking at the marshmallow Selection of Appropriate Regulatory Strategies Choosing appropriate strategies for the situation or stressor is helped by Children s ability to distinguish between stressors that can be controlled and those cannot be Children s ability to chose the most effective strategies for managing their reactions to these stressors Individual Differences in Emotion and Its Regulation Temperament Constitutionally based individual differences in emotional motor and attentional reactivity amp self regulation across situations as well as relative stability over time Infant Temperament Three categories based on parent s reports Easy babies 40 Adjusted readily to new experiences quickly established routines amp generally were cheerful in mood amp easy to calm Difficult babies 10 Were slow to adjust to new experiences likely to react negatively amp intensely to stimuli amp events and irregular in their bodily functions Slow to warm up babies 15 Were somewhat difficult at first but became easier over time Infant Temperament Contemporary Views Six dimensions 1 Fearful distress distress amp withdrawal amp how long they last in new situations 2 Irritable distress fussiness anger frustration especially if child is not allowed to do what they want 3 Attention span amp persistence duration of orienting towards objects or events of interest 4 Activity level how much they move 5 Positive affect smiling and laughter approaches to people manageability 6 Rhythmicity predictability of body functions such as eating amp sleeping Children s Understanding of Emotion Identifying the Emotions of Others The 1St step in the development of emotional knowledge is the recognition of different emotions in others 4 to 7 months happiness amp surprise 8 to 12 months social referencing the use of a parent s facial gestural or vocal cues to decide how to deal with novel ambiguous or possibly threatening situations Age 3 rudimentary ability to label a fairly narrow range of emotional expression Social Referencing By the end of the 1St year infants in an unfamiliar or ambiguous environment often look at their mother father as if searching for cues to help them interpret the situation At this age infants generally use parents emotional signals to guide their interpretations of amp reactions to potentially upsetting or dangerous events or objects eg child falling down the stairs Parents In uence How the Child Perceives a New Object If the parent looks afraid when shown a novel object 12 month olds are less likely to play with the toy than if a parent looks happy Aldo social referencing shows that infants are remarkable skilled at using their parent s emotions to direct their own behavior Identifying Emotions By age 3 children have the ability to label a few emotional expressions Best at labeling happiness Ability to label anger fear and sadness gradually appears between the ages of 46 The ability to label pride guilt gradually appears between the ages of 89 Between the Ages of 48 Children have the ability to Label Other s Emotions by their Body movements 4 years old good at sad movement 5 years old good at sad fear happy movement 8 years old good at sad fear happy and anger movements School Ages Child Elementary school children begin to comprehend tat can have mixed feelingsquot By about 8 years old children can realize how people can feel good amp bad at the same time which coincides with concrete operational thinking A child recognizes that a situation can produce 2 opposing feelings