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HSTA 255 Notes 9-13 November 2015

by: Rachel Notetaker

HSTA 255 Notes 9-13 November 2015 HSTA 255 - 01

Marketplace > University of Montana > History > HSTA 255 - 01 > HSTA 255 Notes 9 13 November 2015
Rachel Notetaker
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About this Document

There was no class on Wednesday for Veterans Day, so this covers Monday and Friday, talking about the New Deal and Indian New Deal in Montana
Montana History
Jeffrey M. Wiltse (P)
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 255 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Jeffrey M. Wiltse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Montana History in History at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 11/14/15
New Deal in Montana 9 November 2015 I. Introduction A. New Deal: Federal government’s response to the Great Depression 1. Roosevelt elected into office (1933) a. Federal government needs to address the economic problems b. In order to fix the problem in the economics c. Create Democratic party- gain loyalty to democratic party 2. How they did this: New Deal Agencies AAA: Agricultural Adjustment Administration PWA: Public Works Administration WPA: Works Progress Administration CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps NRA: B. Montana as major beneficiary of New Deal programs 1. Federal spending in Montana (193-1940) a. $32 million total b. $710 per person (second most of any state) c. Montanans received more money than its people paid in taxes II. Most consequential New Deal programs for Montanans A. Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) 1. Rationale and policy a. Aimed to end economic depression in agriculture b. Crop prices were too low so they raised crop prices i. increased demand ii. cut supply (paid farmers to take some of their land out of use) 2. Benefits to Montana farmers a. Between 1933 and 1937 i. 140,000 contracts between Montana farmers and the federal government ii. Montana farmers received between $5-10 million a year b. By 1936 i. price of wheat sold for over $1.00/bushel c. 1937 i. price of wheat peaked at $1.45/bushel d. From 1932-1938 i. Farmer’s income doubled in Montana B. Public works construction and conservation 1. Public Works Administration (PWA) and Works Progress Administration (WPA) a. Infrastructure and recreation construction i. 7,000 miles of roads Indian New Deal I. Introduction A. Recall previous federal Indian policies B. The “Indian New Deal” essentially reversed previous federal policies II. “Meriam Report” (1928) III. Indian Reorganization Act (1934) A. John Collier B. Provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act C. Native American responses the IRA IV.Conclusion: Mixed legacy of the IRA ii. 1,366 bridges iii. 301 schools iv. 31 outdoor stadiums v. 81 athletic fields vi. 30 swimming pools vii. 40 skating rinks viii. 16 golf courses ix. 10 ski jumps x. 10,000 outhouses b. Meant to put men to work instead of just lending them money c. In 1930s at any given time, 14,000 men were employed i. Only a few jobs hired women ii. Federal government pushed men to jobs to be “bread winners” again d. Fort Peck Dam i. 7 years to build ii. cost $160 million to build iii. 1936 was peak year of construction -10,000 men working -Total over 50,000 men worked on dam -Created boom town (Wheeler) iv.Dam opened in 1940 v. Served two purposes -Put men to work -Flood control later vi. Fort Peck Dam was on the first cover of Life Magazine in 1936 2. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) a. Men ages 17-23 put to work i. Taken into custody for riding railroads b. Set up work camps in Montana (40,000) i. Hired 25,000 men c. Conservation Projects i.plant trees ii. irrigation iii. fight forest fires iv.roads v. national parks d. Separated division for Native Americans i. Blackfeet CCC Crew ii. Worked more on/around reservations iii. Unemployment rates were higher on reservations III. Other New Deal Reforms that impacted Montana A. Rural Electrification a. Provided loans to rural areas to get electricity i. By 1920s farms got it in Montana ii. By 1890s, cities already had electricity B. Federal Writers Project a. A state guide book b. Copper camp C. Blackfeet Craft Guild a. Federal government had Native women produce arts ad crafts to sell to people coming to Glacier National Park i. Economic gain ii. Revive traditional culture of Indians 1. Opposite to assimilation D. Labor relations reform 1. National Recovery Administration a. 1933 b. Federal Government supports organized labor 2. National Labor Relations Act (aka Wagner Act) a. 1935 b. Gave workers the right to unionize c. Bargain collectively with their employers 3. Labor movement in Montana re-ignites a. Miners in Butte reform as International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers i. Local #1 ii. Went on strike and won 40 hour work weeks/more safety IV.Conclusion Significance: 1. Helped stabilize Montana economy and prevent people from becoming destitute 2. Helped Montana become more developed 3. Stabilized agricultural economy 4. Enlarged the power and role of the government in Montana a. State government grew too Indian New Deal 13 November 2015 I. Introduction a. Roosevelt’s efforts to solve social and economic problems plaguing Indians for decades, not just the great depression b. Addressed bad conditions on reservations in the 1920s/30s A. Recall previous federal Indian policies a. Indian education (boarding schools) b. Dawes act c. Assimilation and Acculturation efforts d. 1924: Indian citizenship act i. granted/imposed American citizenship on Native Americans ii. Political assimilation, not just social/cultural iii. Many were citizens before this act 1. Dawes act 2. WWI soldiers B. The “Indian New Deal” essentially reversed previous federal policies a. Aimed to: i. Reestablish the tribe as basic social/political unit for Indians ii. Revitalize traditional tribal cultures/practices iii. Promote community based economic development 1. Not necessarily agriculture like before (Dawes act) b. Three acts: i. American Indian Division of CCC 1. Used as program ensuring Native American jobs ii. Blackfeet Craft Guild 1. Encouraged/enabled traditional arts/crafts for sale 2. Promoted economic development, revitalized traditional practices iii. Indian Reorganization Act (1934) 1. “Center Piece” of the Indian New Deal 2. Had most significant reversing effect of previous policies II. “Meriam Report” (1928) a. Government funded investigation of social/economic problems on reservations b. “The Problem of Indian Administration” i. Unemployment for Native Americans was 3 times higher than whites ii. Health conditions abysmal 1. Infant mortality rate death before age1) a. 190/1000 for Indians (19%) b. 70/1000 for whites (7%) c. 114/1000 for blacks (11.4%) iii. Average annual income was 1/10 national averages 1. $1,350 for whites, $100-200 for Indians c. Basic underlying cause: federal Indian policies and administration of Indian affairs i. “If long continued would tend to pauperize any race” ii. Poor not because of individual factors but because of federal misdirection d. Started federal government process of rethinking indian policy III. Indian Reorganization Act: IRA (1934) A. John Collier a. Non Indian, appointed head of Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1933 by Roosevelt b. Recognized as Leading defender of Indian rights, outspoken critic of previous federal indian policies c. Under Harold Ickes (secretary of the interior) i. Sympathy of Indians’ point of view, but Paternalism 1. “I want the Indians to be helped to help themselves” d. Accepted the Meriam report, began improving reservations through the IRA B. Provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act a. Ended allotment of tribal lands (Dawes Act) i. Excess land that hadn’t been purchased went back to the tribe ii. Individual property owners could trade land to tribe for shares of tribal corporations (Cattle grazing, private businesses, etc.) iii. Government made loans available for Native Americans to buy back land b. Gave tribes authority to adopt tribal constitutions i. Creation of tribal councils legislative bodies) ii. Representatives democratically elected, given power to manage tribal affairs iii. Limited form of self-government, reservations were not sovereign nations c. Increased federal funding to tribes for health care and education i. Education meaning day schools, not boarding schools 1. Day schools increased from 132 to 226 2. Enrollment in day schools tripled ii. Federal Indian schools started teaching Indian cultures, language, history, etc. d. Promoted economic development on reservations i. Made seed money available to make businesses ii. Gave tribal councils more control over natural resources on reservation land 1. Timber, water, oil, coal, etc. e. Established affirmative action hiring i. Native Americans given preference for federal jobs on reservations f. Tribes had the right/option to opt-in or opt-out of the IRA C. Native American responses the IRA a. Initially, most were skeptical due to past policies i. Collier organized 10 regional meetings to explain the benefits to tribal leaders b. 181 tribes reorganized under IRA, 78 tribes didn’t i. Those who didn’t had several reasons 1. Wanted to continue on road to assimilation to US Mainstream Culture 2. Huge distrust of federal government, didn’t want to risk it 3. Rejected representative democracy a. It was contrary to traditional system of decision making, where general consensus of all adult members was required c. The Flathead reservation (Salish, Kootenai, Pond d’Orielle were first in the nation to adopt the IRA d. Blackfeet reservation voted 83% yes to adopt the act e. Crow, Assiniboine, and some others said no IV.Conclusion: Mixed legacy of the IRA A. Benefits: a. Ended allotment b. Revived interest in tribal cultures c. Granted Native Americans greater control over natural resources B. Problems: a. Indian affairs still dictated economic direction of reservations b. Underfunded tribal revisions c. Didn’t solve social/economic problems


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