HD 205- Week 3 notes!
HD 205- Week 3 notes! HD 205-001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Green on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HD 205-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Blanche C. Komara in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 191 views.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
HD 205 week 3 01262015 Cultural In uences Immigrant Youth s Adaptation Academic achievement and adjustment children from other countries children of immigrant parents adjust well to the academic life in America and the culture which is different than that of the diverse countries they come from Correlation design 0 Researchers collect information and do not change their experiences in any way 0 Limited because the cause and effect relationship cannot truly be determined Correlation coefficients 0 The magnitude of the number tells you the strength of the relationship 0 Size of the number will always be between 0 and 1 o 0 no relationship 0 1 or 1 strong relationship 0 The sign of the number or indicates if the relationship is positive or negative 0 1 strong negative relationship 0 1 strong positive relationship Independent and Dependent variables 0 Independent 0 This is the variable that the experimenter wi manipulate o Anticipated to incite changes in another variable Dependent o This is the variable that the experimenter will measure 0 Anticipated to change as a result of the independent variable Laboratory Experiment Using Independent and Dependent Variables o In an experiment testing whether treatment will cause a decline in u symptoms 0 The independent variable Treatment 0 Dependent variable Percentage of people showing a decline in u symptoms Modi ed Experiments 0 Field experiments 0 Utilize a natural setting to study rare opportunities that would not be as random or personal in a supervised setting 0 Natural experiments 0 Use already existing treatments and compare the differences between them 0 Choose groups that are as similar to the characteristics as possible Designs for studying development 0 Longitudinal 0 Studies transformations over time making it the best research deggn o The design studies the same participants again and again at different stages in life as they age 0 Perry preschool project study that follows children from pre school age all the way to age 40 s currently studying to see where they are now no criminal record holding a job married to a spousedivorced etc Crosssectional 0 Studies different ages at the same time using participants that are different ages Sequential o Crosssectional or longitudinal studies that are similar in their designresearch are conducted at different time o Microgenetic o The experimenter will give a participant a unique task and then observe how well they are mastering the task over several sessions Can Music Experience Enhance Intelligent quotMozart effect the belief that playing classical music such as Mozart had an effect on a babies intelligence 0 The music must be ongoing and handson in order to be effective 0 Other activities that can enhance development may also produce similar effects 0 not reliable Children s Research Rights Pdvacy Knowledge of results 0 Bene cial treatments Informed consent 0 Protection from harm Chapter 2 Environmental Foundations Environmental contexts for Development 0 Family in uences on development 0 Families are the most in uential environment o If family relationships are warm nurturing and gratifying it can predict better physical and psychological health of a child later on o If a child feels an isolation from their family it can be associated with developmental problems throughout their life 0 Ecological systems perspective Direct n Twoperson relationships Punishment vs warmth Indirect a Third parties Coparenting where parents are not in a romantic relationship but are parenting their shared child Grandparents o Adapting to change Change is inevitable within the family and outside of the family Parent development adults continue to develop as parents Socioeconomic Status and Family Functioning o The size of the family and the timing of the family life can in uence development at what age the adults become parents how far apart the children are in age etc o The moralsethics as well as expectations of families can have anin uence 0 Whether or not the father is involved with the child can in uence a child as well as coparenting o The communication style of the family as well as how discipline is distributed can make an in uence 0 Cognitive development of the child Worldwide education of girls 0 Many children throughout the world receive no education Around 73 million particularly girls who are living in poverty 0 Education can provide girls with enriched verbal skills and the liberation that they need to make a positive difference in their lives 0 also improves 0 health of the family 0 relationships between the family and parenting relationships 0 according to the United Nations the education of girls would be the most effective way to ght disease poverty and maternal and child mortality Af uence An abundance of wealthy parents are not accessible to their children either physically andor emotionally Af uent parents are more likely to set extreme standards of achievement for their children 0 Parents who believe that success is more valuable than character often raise children who have academic and emotional troubles eating dinner together can make a difference Poverty plays a role in development 0 Poverty can cause Joblessness High divorce rate High rate of teenpregnancy Inadequate government programs Less subsidized housing 0 Homelessness US ranked 25th in childhood poverty among industrialized nations US ranked 28th in infant deaths in rst year US ranked 28th in teenage pregnancy rate US ranked 12th in public expenditure on education as a percentage of gross domestic US ranked 9th in public expenditure on early childhood education and child care as a percentage of gross domestic product US ranked 29th in public expenditure on health as a percentage of total health expenditure public plus private 0 O O O Neighborhoods and Schools 0 Neighborhoods are often a good resource for children s development in areas such as social ties o LowSES families are more dependent on their immediate surroundings than highSES families are 0 Areas that have high levels of unemployment crime and population turnover are more likely for social ties that link families together to break down 0 By high school graduation children will on average have spent 14000 hours in school 0 When parents are involved in their children s school life it supports the development of that child through all ages The Cultural Context 0 Daily life is shaped by culture 0 Values depend on the culture They vary depending on the culture 0 North American culture values include selfreliance independence and family privacy Subcultures 0 Family structures that cooperate with one another The AfricanAmerican Extended Family 0 In today s society more black adults than white have extended family Relatives other than their children all living in the same house 0 Having an extendedfamily system can provide support emotionally and the sharing of resources helping to relieve the stress that most single parents endure as well as povertystricken families 0 Living with extended family can also in uence and stress the importance of values such as cooperation morals and religion lndividualist and Collectivist Societies o lndividualist 0 People believe they are separate from other people 0 Their main concern is their personal goals and growth Collectivist 0 People identify themselves as a part of a group of other people 0 Their main concern is the goals of the group rather than individual goals Where Public Policy Falls Short 0 Some children not receiving health insurance 0 Child care that is subpar Poor preparation for the workforce 0 Many children not nishing high school Children s Rights 0 1989 Convention on the Right of the Child UN General Assembly 0 interest groups that are in uential children s defense fund GeneticEnvironment Correlation passive correlation 0 parents choose the environment evocative correlation 0 how children are parented is determined by the reactions they evoke from others 0 active correlation o nichepicking children pick the environment that most complements their heredity suited to one s ability Environmental In uences on Gene Expression Geneticenvironmental correlation is viewed as genetic driven 0 Several researchers are concernedhave issues with any hereditary traits or heredity in general having supremacy o Bidirectional in uences Negative geneticenvironmental correlations can be avoidedseparated by parents or other caring adults 0 Example a child with aggressive behavior who was parented by a mother that practiced good parenting could be positively affected The Epigenetic Framework Epigenesis development as a result of continuing bidirectional exchanges between all levels of the environment and heredity o The development of a child and individual is in uenced by gene expression behavior and environment all working together