01-29-2015 Destruction of Native American Societies
01-29-2015 Destruction of Native American Societies HIST 1011
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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Niamh Cahill-Billings on Thursday January 29, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to HIST 1011 at George Washington University taught by Prof. Kennedy in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see World History: 1500- Now in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
Destruction of Native American Societies Why did early New World societies crumble so quickly So easily Why were the greatest civilizations the rst Expedition nanced by Spain come to dominate and monopolize the Americas for the rst hundred years Spain 1492 highly militarized in the gripe with religious fundamentalism War focused society motivated by religious fanaticism o The Spanish had been ghting the Muslims that had occupied and ruled by south of Spain during the middle ages 0 Finally rid of the Moors in 1492 o Consequenceljl this struggle had created an aristocratic warrior class interested in wealth and glory through military conquest People that were powerful had attained their position by beating the Moors They justi ed their actions on religion 0 Determined to advance Christianity by any means necessary 0 Inquisitionl Forcible conversion of Muslims and expulsion ofJews Enforced religious conformity with a high degree of ruthlessness Burning people at the stake Bring to the New World religious fanaticism and determined explorations Spanish Roots of Conquest Conquistadores military aristocratic class that had led the removal of the Moors 0 Follow the heels of Columbus to the New World 0 Warrior class 0 Set of values that place importance on struggle ghting achieving greatness in battle and acquiring wealth through plunder 0 Crisis after the end of the holy wars how are they going to continue their way of life 0 Americas new frontier to conquer and demonstrate power and skill MotivationD Prestige gold silver success god 0 Encountering an enemy Native Americas that are EVEN WORSE than the Muslims Savage uncivilized people human sacri ce Poytheistic Black magic Church provided the justi cation for the Inquisition and removal of Moors 0 Catholic priests accompany conquistadores Not initially to covert Native Americans but to cater to the religious needs of the conquistadores o Dilemma Are Native Americans human If they are NOT humanD they have no souls and do not require spiritual care or should be converted and can be treated like animals If they ARE humanD obligation to save their souls and convert them it s their duty 0 With time more clergy members conclude that they are human and they need to be recognized as God39s creatures with souls o Propels a new wave of Catholic priests that are there to convert Catholic missionaries Coming in contact with devastated communities that have been crushed morally and physically More vulnerable to conversion 0 quotquotPrime targets quotquot 0 Success unstable institutions Much different experience than attempts to convert in China 0 Much stronger and cohesive group 0 Bartoleme de Las CasasD Jesuit missionary Acquires a stricken conscious not only are they humans but they need to be protected from the atrocities that Catholics are committing against Leading critic against conquistadores Used the Protestant reformation to spread word about Catholic agenda Helps persuade the Spanish government to stop the enslavement of Native American peoples Still happens illegally Create other forms of unfree labour that is considered legal Relies on Native informants helps him understand the Native American culture society and the sophistication and moral worth of Native American communities 0 The RequirementD Spanish agreement with Native peoples read when encountering new peoples Natives can39t resist otherwise they39ll take matters into their own hands Read in Spanish to native peoples who don39t understand When Columbus establishes main settlement in Hispaniola around 3 million Native peoples there Arawak people within 50 years there are only 500 left and eventually disappear completely 0 Successful genocide Repeated in Caribbean communities Landfall along the coast of Mexico Violent Encounters o Cortes and the Aztecs 0 Around 600 men 0 See what opportunities exist along the coast of Mexico 0 Starts hearing stories about a great kingdom in the mountainous region even though his superior does not want him in the interior he decides to disobey those orders 0 Burns his boats so that his men can t leave him 0 Tenochtitlan capital located in the middle of a lake Establishes control and overthrows Montezuma Pizarro and the Inca o Highlands of Peru where he39s heard reports of a great kingdom o 180 Spanish soldiers lncas 400000 troops o Conquistadores lay a trap and slaughter the 6000 bodyguards accompanying the emperor and capture him Either you can convert to Christianity and be strangled to death or you can be burned at the stake as a heath Coverts o Establishes silver mines the exploitation of silver becomes a key sources of wealth for the Spanish Why were the Spanish so successful Cortes and Pizarro clash with great and powerful civilizations with small troops how did they do it 1 Disease sweeps through even before the Spanish arrive a Obviously God has looked favorable on your endeavor 2 Technology a quotGuns Germs and Steel b Steel swords sharper stronger and more deadly than stone weapons c Steel armour better than cotton 0 Guns rearms cannons e Horse thought that humans and horses were one 3 Spanish had been warriors a Preestablished tactics 4 Intelligence a Spanish are much better at acquiring intelligence b They already have had a considerable amount of experience dealing with foreigners i Well aware that other people exist c Native Americans have nothing resembling that set of expectations and illprepared when they come in contact for the rst time i Often resort to supernatural explanations ii Quetzalcoatl supposed to come across the sea on a cloud 1 Are conquistadores gods or demons 2 They39re so savage and evil 3 Limits your ability to understand the Spanish and their agendas 5 Written script they can be writing letters and informing people able to accumulate and save information a Natives only have oral communications b Aztec civilization was not keen to get bad information 6 Spanish had Native lnformants a Maliche Dona Marina comes from the Mayan people b Sold to Cortes as a concubine c Translatorlnterpreter she knows Mayan Aztec and Spanish 7 Both Aztec and lnca relied heavily on terror a Demanded large numbers of human sacri ces b Once the Spanish people understood this they could better manipulate the people i quotjoin our side and you ll be liberatedquot Divide and Cortes create divisionsextenuate division nd allies and use that to yourbene t Division of the Spoils Pope intervenes Treaty of Tordesillas signed 2 years after Columbus lands in Mexico Draws a line 38 degree West West Spanish and East Portuguese No one knows that Brasil exists when the line was drawn Portugal claims it Africa is on the Portuguese side Spanish can39t participate in slave trade If you were a protestant country you don39t ca re what the Pope says 0 Western European powers realize that there are potential riches English Scots Danes Dutch and French start to send ships across the Atlantic Terms Terra nullius