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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacquelyn Stinson on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 358 at University of Oregon taught by Lord C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see History of Design >1 in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Week 7 Monday November 9, 2015 Dresser’s Metal work - Production of Linthorpe: Small production site that was not under his direct supervision, but that produced his designs - Looking machine like: his aesthetic and design resolution is a matter of him conforming his design ideals to the manufacturing products th - His work really looks forward to the Bauhaus and early 20 century aesthetics - Dresser looks at materials in a new way, rather than copying the past (this is similar to the Bauhaus thinking) This is providing a critique of existing practices. Morris and Webb – primarily neo-gothic artists - They critique Dresser’s work using machinery. - Critique based on: quality of production and the role of the designer Influence of John Ruskin—brilliant and tragic aesthetic critic - Provides a three dimensional body of thought in design - Looks back to the medieval model Pre-Raphaelites - They have a very detailed view in perspective of their subjects - How the medieval model can be translated into contemporary world - Christ in the Carpenter’s Shop, John Millais 1849-50 - Girlhood of Mary, Rossetti 1848 - Renaissance model casts a long shadow of the high point of western culture - Renaissance look back to the Greco-Roman and the Pre-Raphaelites reject this - Part of the renaissance model deals with rationalism and progressive culture - Both Pre-Raphaelite (arts and crafts) and Renaissance model intersect in one way o Honor the individual o But Raphaelites focus more on the group and social aspects on various levels - Arts and Crafts movement is painfully self-aware of what they are doing. This is not spontaneous or intuitive art - Pre-Raphaelites have a long production process because the work ethos of thought process and production is so built into their approach Morris: William Morris Table 1856 and Ford Maddox Brown Bed 1856 - These works have a lot in common - Rustic quality - Studying and sophisticated - Evokes a sensibility and experience William Morris, Furniture 1856 - Curved back chair references the medieval - Wall paper is also designed by Morris Burne-Jones and Rossetti both attend Oxford University Edward Burne-Jones, Good Shepherd Window 1858-60 - Appreciation for the medieval and Pugins point of view - Stained glass completely made by hand - Rich and magical result Architecture: - George Street - Architecture produced by GE Street, which Morris worked under - Morris meets Webb while working for him - House designed for Morris and Jane Burden (his wife) – married in 1869 o First statement of the arts and crafts ethos was the house designed for them by Webb o This is Webb’s first building o Comfortable upper middle class home o Rooted in medieval architecture style o Webb describes it as an “honest building” o Gothic entrance way with a pointed arch o Medieval decorative painting on the door o In the entranceway of the house there are paintings that are set into the doors of the furniture o Intimacy and warmth of the wood continues throughout the house o Garden quotes medieval models o Brick is used for durable, homey feel o White room with painting by Rossette that is now at the Tate o Textiles in the home were from arts and craft movement artists too - Morris had different production lines and price points - He emphasized the handcraft - Webb, Backgammon Player Cabinet 1862 & Burges Cabinet 1858 o Both are medieval styles o Echo the castle roof form - Morris, Sideboard 1887 o Produced for well-off collectors o Focus on the rich quality and beauty of the material - Morris, Chair 1887 o Textile designed by him o Colorful work - Morris wanted to design for the greatest number of people - Morris created comfortable and well-designed places o Morris rooms Workman’s small House 1886 o Drawing Room, Old Swan 1884 – this space was more high-end than the work room o Comfortable and hygienic arts because of the slums there were present in the western world o Wanted people to have a place where they could prosper - Morris Green Dining Room, S. Kennington Museum 1886 o He does textile, wall paper and furniture - Morris textile design o Also prints on tapestries o Superb craftsmanship o Decorative inlay o Wife Jane Burden often acted as his principal model for his works – shown as the woman in his work (muse to him) - Jane Morris in Reform Dress 1860s o They were involved in the dress reform movement o Typical women’s dress 1860s o Features a wash waist o Very heavy dresses with enormous sizes o reform movement of some people (in women’s rights) take great interest in design o The dresses could deform women’s cages and were strenuous to wear. They were immobilizing to the body. This led to the dress reform - James Whistler, The White Girl 1862 o More simple dress = dress reform dress o Influence innovate trends o They study tonalities (tones in white) – true subject of the painting o Choice of subject is particular, flowing and liberating approach to women’s clothing o Presents the woman’s natural forms - model based on woman’s medieval costume - “aesthetic fashion” during 1880s = links back to the style that looks at design as something that can change a person’s life and thinking o This term is used in relevance to the dress reform - Fashion and silk available from Liberty and Company London 1890s o There is a tremendous international influence o Influences folk art traditions - Eliel Saarinen, Finnish Pavilion, Paris World’s Fair 1900 o Important international exhibition o He presents Finland by showing middle ages and gothic style o Furniture by Saarinen – Chairs 1900-1910 Influential route source for Art Nouveau in various countries o Not trying to impose new idea, but respects what exists in each culture Arts and crafts society takes route all over the United States o Cover of first issue of The Craftsman 1900 October o Ad for reproduction of Morris Chairs by Gustave Stickley 1899 o Influences American Design o 1880-1900s o Powerful influence until the first world war - Especially strong influence in ceramics o Small elements used in furniture and architecture o Arts and Crafts tiles 1910 – from Cali and Massachusetts Wednesday, November 11, 2015 Morris influence on America - Wonderful appreciation for William Morris’ ideas even though America was an industrial power house - Publication of Morris’ ideas in the form of The Craftsman, published in 1900 o Ad for reproduction of Morris Chairs by Gustave Stickley1999 o Hand craft combined with the modern interpretation o Designs seen in furniture, ceramics, wall paper etc. - America, Arts and Crafts tiles 1910 o One pottery site was in Massachusetts - Newcomb Ceramics work o Attached to Tulane University o Newcomb vase, New Orleans 1906 o Linkage between Morris’ designs (incorporation of plant forms) in his work to the Art Nouveau. o Mastery in the balance between negative and positive space o Design at different junctions of the vase with large and small elements o Great contribution to the ceramics period - Adelaide Robineau o Another influence in the ceramics o Adelaide Robinaeu vase, 1910 o Evokes nature o Shows the sky and earth in a moody way o Sophisticated in form - Rookwood Pottery o Japanese influence o Rookwood Pottery, Vases 1902 o Bamboo forms can be seen o Taste for warm coloration and organic feel within the earthiness of the glaze - Metal work in the US o Beaten Copper Lamp, Old Mission Copper Craft House, San Fran o Copper and Silver Vase, Bookcase, Roycrafters Buffalo 1910 “head, heart and hand” – describes emphasis of the process in production Suggests the presence of the designer in the piece (unlike Dresser) Hand craft is shown, tactile nature Pieces for the eye Narrative touch Influence from Morris o Gustave Stickley, Craftman Table Lamp 1920 Stickley is located in NY This is different from the pretty decorative work seen in Tiffany’s These arts and craft works have more of an earthiness o Embroidered Ginko Table Scarf and Gustave Stickley Library table, table lamp, and table scarf 1909 Naturalistic forms that are stylized (in a way they look back to Dresser, but are primarily influenced by Morris) - Arts and Crafts movement is important to America from the 1880-the early 1900s o Morris’ work made an impression o Natural receptivity that was seen in the Shakers exists in the US already o Morris influences until WWI at the very least o Craftsman “bungalows” 1900-1920 Craftsman publication are essential in architecture This architecture take on many different incarnations (California and Oregon o Craftsman or Mission interiors 1900-1920 Craftsman or mission style Deep colored wood Emphasis on paneling (no thought for conservation or preservation at this point) – wood is used freely Not expansive interiors They do not evoke as much as spaces do later (later with the Bauhaus there is a focus on natural light) These places instead focus on the closeness and proximity to the hearth Hearth = gathering place around the source of heat (often a fire place) Frank Llyod Wright (modern architect) has the idea of the hearth in his work Essential quality of the home is the hearth to enhance social and family life Focus on human interaction Important as a counter point from the relentless momentum of industrialization Gustave Stickley Table 1900-10 Material itself, the joints in the wood, and elemental shapes create the decoration of the design Gustave Stickley Divan 1900-1920 Divine elements along the rear of the furniture Widening in a very calibrated way Simplicity and slight modification of near/far and positive/negative space enhances the use of the furniture Drives people inward Greene and Greene, Gamble House Pasadena 1907 Craftsman house transitions into modernism in an organic way Shingle work and emphasis on wood Low line roof Beauty of the engagement of building with the environment Opens up a little but more as there is a clerestory at the top floor to allow in natural light – connects to the outdoors Open of the walls to the outdoors, but other parts of the building have a more sheltering approach Permeability of the walls (more windows used), but with the use of rich material of wood th Late 19 Century and Art Nouveau Print making in Europe is significant. This is the era of the café and the performance hall. They serve as an emblem to the modern society - Henri Toulouse-Lautrec and Charles Zidler 1890 o Grinding of wheat and flower was transformed into a place for Moulin rouge (performance) – this is a new type of social space o Not like the opera or grand theater o Complete strangers from all different social classes share the same place and sit close o The poster advertisement has a feeling of the space o Fantastic balance of the text and the positive and negative space o Evocation of a modern environment o modern city with new forms of entertainment o Lautrec Small stature from a fall as child He was quite Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Red-Haired Girl 1886 Simple, and full of personality although we cannot see her expression Evocative emotional quality to it Fascinating of the tension between his paintings and graphic work Lautrec, Cirque Fernando 1887 Elegance in atmosphere and sense of space Playfulness Middle space between graphics and paintings – there is blank space helps to balance the composition Kind of art that grabs attention in graphic form Contrast in color Hentri Toulouse- Latrec, sketch and poster for Moulin Rouge 1890 Famous dancer and singer shown in this daring pose Flipping up of her skirt while doing the can-can, which is a very athletic dance There is a fellow observer looking at the dancer Message is communicated well along with the sense of atmosphere of the performance hall You can see the mix of classes within the image (silhouette of observers) Newspaper of the Moulin rouge – you see a place for seating, but a lot of the performance takes place on the floor with the public almost part of the act Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Paintings of Moulin Rouge 1890 and 1892 (maybe a pastel, not a painting) The graphic are is treated like the painting Evocative Quite corner of Moulin rouge is shown – sense of small intimate group is shown talking Mixture of classes and the performers Henri Toulouse-Lautrec Poster for Aristide Bruant 1892 Enormous new entertainment venues that were available to people in Paris Eldarado is being announce as a place to go by Lautrec More intimate place that Moulin Rouge Aristide Bruant – would insult everyone who came into the place. People felt left out if they weren’t insulted Henri Toulouse-Lautrec Posters for Lithography shop 1893,Bicycle Chain factory 1897 Woman is an important collector of these prints Interesting that this woman is shown as a consumer, rather than a performer She is familiar with the process. It is treated by her as a fine art object. Sharp angle in floor and room - stylized of post impressionism (Van Gogh does this too) Commercialism – bicycle manufacturing (allows for new activities, sports and transportation) Speed is suggested in this image Bicycle is a commercial product (some people may even bet on these races) Theophile Steinlen, Poster for Charles Verneau Poster 1896 Balance of the text with the image Vibrant colors Captures attention Friday, November 13, 2015 Henri Tourlouse-Lautrec - represents the explosion of a printing method. It is a combination of the fine arts and jobbing - Partially because of his personal needs he leave behind his aristocratic background - He becomes associated with the Avant Guard = non-traditional subject areas - New energetic use of commercial printing for very high caliber design - He addresses the modern spaces that reflect the city life – new places were different classes come together and are mixed - Deeps the industrial economy - Example: Moulin Rouge - Medium of these posters are the Lithograph - He is innovative with the lithograph –he explores the freedom of this medium - Dynamic, sketch like quality – commercial but recognizably styled by Lautrec Steinlen - Theophile Steinlen, Poster for Charles Verneau Posters - Advertises print maker that manufactures this design, 1896 - Approaches audience with appeal that explore commercial printing and fine are coming together Alphonse Muche - Specializes in posters for announcing the theater - Looks forward to art nouveau - Posters for Sarah Bernhardt plays, 1897-98 o One of the best actresses in Paris - Signature style by him o Elongation of the form o Almost a quality of stained glass o Kind of mural like - Alphonse Mucha, Job cigarette papers poster 1897 o Example of democratic art o Exemplifies his style Period where artists from all over Europe flock to Paris Loui Fuller- dancer at the international exhibition - she is a mixed performer with modern and pop performances; her key-note dance was her dance in naturalistic movements, Evocative movement, rather than formal - Manuel Orzi, Poster of Loie Fuller 1900 o Advertising this dancers performances in Paris o At the time of a major world’s fair o Beautiful time period right before WWI o Dimension of the beauty and glamour of the period o There are huge internationally stresses at this time that lead up to WWI – first fully mechanized war, causing an unknown level of suffering o Posters like this are emblematic to the time because it represents the talent and beauty of the period that has all these problems involved o Brings an additional tension to the understanding of design o Fuller is shown in an evocative manner - Jules Cheret, Loie Fuller, 1893 o More decorative approach o Cheret was interested in the physiological connection to line and color (scientific theory) o Looks at the subliminal quality of line and color to affect the viewer o Using lithographic medium he can create an image of a suspended figure o Also has a commercial appeal o Invests some sub-text that has a joyful color o Has upward and positive lines - Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Loie Fuller 1897 o Even more experimental o Fascinated by the flowing shapes of Fuller o Very abstract form o Angles horizon line - Loie Fuller Pavilion, Paris World Exhibition 1900 o Fuller has a populous appeal and performs at the world exhibition o This pavilion was dedicated to her performances and work o Suggestion of her flowing movement and her body appear on the exterior of the building o Like a drape has been swept over the building o Emblematic to the transition to the Art Nouveau style of architecture (over take the arts and crafts dominance) o Graceful lines that eco nature o Organic forms that flow o Lighting was important to her performance - Hector Guimard, Subway entrance 1900 o He did a number of publically beautiful space designs o The designs have organic qualities, they look like they are dripping over the masonry o Explicitly plant forms by using lyrical lines o Graceful approach to design that creates an event of going down into the subway o Subway is very conventional but it modifies the space and boundary - Felix Valloton, Poster for Steigfried Bing’s Gallery o Print making o Announcing a Bing Gallery o Stiegriend Bing 1899 Bing is born into a family who owns a porcelain factory in the 1850s, he takes over this in the 1860s He opens a retail shop in Paris directed to the upper middle class At this time the style he initially represents run to the neo-rococo style His business collapses in 1870-71 because of the war He then deals with oriental goods Advertisement for Bing’s shop 1883 Japanese Pavilion International Exposition Paris 1873 Advertisement for these occurs at the international exhibition in 1878 These tremendously impress Bing His brother in law is a console in Tokyo – this let him into Japanese society and design circles Late 1870-early 1880s he produces Japanese antiques and brings them back to his shop 1888 he begins publication of the first journal in France dedicated to Japanese Art (published in multiple languages) First issue described are at Art Nouveau (new art) Young artists read these publications very closely Offers new and different design o Important for providing venues for early representation of the Art Nouvau o Opportunity to open shops dedicated to this new style - Manuel Orizi, Poster for Julius Meier-Graefe’s Gallery o Fluid medium o Fine art poster o This poster was to announce a private gallery o Important because up until the 19 century, exhibition as dominated by the salon (extension from the French government) o Role of free enterprise happens here o Paris is the center of the art world at this time o Different levels of art and culture at the time shown here Both Chaplet and Van Gogh are reading Bing’s Publication – approach intersects with the appeal of Art Nouveau and the Japanese art aesthetic - Vincent Van Gogh, Japonaiserie: The Flowering Plum Tree 1887 o Follow his brother to Paris and tries to work in the same gallery but he does not have the personality for it o Van Gogh was not very social – he would have been a minister, but was too sympathetic to the poor o He becomes interested in Japanese prints o Impacted by the French Impressionists o Throw away theatre district prints – Van Gogh tries to mimic the Japanese prints o The tree is in the foreground, which gives you an organic frame to what is happening in the background o Uses color that is not original to the natural scene – crosses over to symbolism o Makes you look at the scene in a new way o He is just not interested in the historic pictorial design traditions, so he picks up on the ideas that Bing represents o Paint is thickly applied - Ernst Chaplet, Porcelain Vase 1880s o Ceramic work with influence from the Japanese o Superficially simple form with evocative glaze o Attention to the elegant form – swelling vessel with an extended neck, that is almost disappearing at the top o Learn from Japanese pottery forms o Exploration of the beauty in the materials John La Farge, Stained glass window, Tiffany and Company 1900 - Goes back to designer who does stained glass - Lightless, charming quality that overlaps with the art nouveau - Forms found in nature - Tiffany was from NYC in 1870s, he like the other designers were very influences by the arts and crafts movement - Capable of changing people’s lives - Famous for his stained glass windows that he executed to important designers (like La Farge) Louis Comfort Tiffany Studio in NYC, 1885 - As the yearly salon in France loses authority - Lamps, vessels, articles, stained glass windows, and fine are pieces of jewelry - Finding patrons falls on the individual artist and designer - They try to showcase their studio as a space that the buyers can fulfill their wishes - Expectation of what the design world is about - Functions almost like a private gallery - The actual production factory may be located next door New decorative book by Bing - Talks about the Tiffany studio, saying it is a vast studio with various techniques involved all working together. - Bing uses Tiffany as an example that the decorative art should be of a greater prestige - Columbian Exhibition was a turning point – Tiffany was at this plat form - Bing uses the Japanese design style and Tiffany as models to suggest ideas of the revival of the French decorative style Louis Comfort Tiffany, Veteran’s Room 7 Regiment Armony NYC 1879-81 - Bings vision in revival of design is about the total design - Interior where all elements, (chairs, architecture, silverware) and all designed by Tiffany in his workshop - Luxurious rich and cohesive interior - Similar to the idea of F.L.W. who designs everything in the building, down to the door knob - French Government sees this as an economic solution - Cover of Revue des arts decoratifs 1884 o They allow for this type of design but look back and quote the Rococo
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