week 7 notes
week 7 notes Psych 413
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynette Walker on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 413 at University of Washington taught by Kathryn Monahan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Psych 413 Week 7 11/9- 11/13 Adolescent Peer Relationships Why are peers important during teen years? “Age- Grading”: teens spending most of their time with same-aged groups o Spend more time with peers o Importance of parents decreasing o Psychosocially you are more influenced by peers than any other time of the life span Major Changes of Peer Relationships (Adolescent Peer relations) Different from parent relationship o Time Spent: 15% of time or less spent with family 50% of time (outside of school) spent with friends Adult presence is low in high school Seeing friends as often as possible in high school o Less adult supervision when with friends Autonomy from parents Less supervision during school and activities o More contact with opposite-sex Children (by age 5) tend to play with same sex friends Mid adolescence: you see contact with opposite sex Sexually growing Friend groups become more mixed o Emergence of crowds: Big groups of people that serve as social references Peer culture; walk-alike, talk alike, express different values than parents, express different interest from other crowds Graph: Boys and Girls: Time spent with different groups: o 5 – 9 grade Decrease in time with family Increase in time alone for boys, girls stay the same Increase in time with friends for girls, boys stay the same Peer Group Structure o Dyadic influences Typically seen in childhood One or two close friends o Cliques Friendships: reciprocal friendships, same gender, common sets of interests and activities Typically, 5-6 same sex youths Main socialization context of teens o Crowds: 50% belong to two or more crowd Large groups Reputation based (reference group) Not closest friends, not the intimate interactions group, i.e. nerds, jocks, choir kids, druggies, band kids Individuals in same clique usually are in same crowd or related crowd No jock crowd in European schools because organized sports is not part of school Social Structure – [graph] o X-axis: low vs. high peer orientation o Y-axis: low vs. high adult orientation This spectrum measures where crowds fit in the social structure. Where would jocks, nerds, band kids, cheerleaders and braniacs fit in? Jocks and populars are high peer orientation, high adult orientation Nerds are low peer orientation, high adult orientation Brains are mid peer orientation, high adult orientation Partyers are high peer orientation, low adult orientation Druggies are mid peer orientation, low adult orientation “toughs” are low peer orientation, low adult orientation In some high schools, race has no effect on crowds, if it’s less than 25% of school population is a certain race you will see that race divide among other crowds Parents and Peers o Research study: Classifying peer crowds, showing what friends do (seen in friend group, not in participant) Maladjusted group: High Drinking, low achievement, mid emotional distress, low school participation Disengaged group: Low drinking, low achievement, low emotional distress, low school participation Engaged group: Mid drinking, high achievement, high emotional distress, high school participation High Functioning: No drinking, high achievement, low emotional distress, high school participation o Individuals with high functioning and engaged friends do the best in school, behaviorally Individuals are from consistent parenting styles, engaged parents, educated and 2 parent families Long lasting implications from parenting styles. Cliques o Who cliques with whom? Age based (same age) Sex: same-sex in early-mid adolescence Social class: stay with same SES Race o You clique with people who are like you o Friendships don’t last because people change through adolescence o How stable are cliques? Central roles: leaders of cliques Peripheral roles: lower status, can go between cliques Relatively unstable, changes through school year and through adolescence Less continuity in female cliques compared to males Usually get new friends with the same characteristic as old friend Finding one’s peer group niche o Popularity: Attractive, Athletic, Academically achieving Predicting popularity Social skills o Confident but not conceited o Appropriate amount of distancing and intimacy Can aggressive youth be popular? o Not in elementary school or middle school o Yes in high school o Unpopular adolescents Rejected: actively disliked Aggressive: bullies, they’re mean Aggressive-withdrawn: shy and inappropriately aggressive o Hostile but because they are nervous towards social contact Neglected (withdrawn): Are not liked or disliked, they’re invisible. Strongly temperament based (inhibited), less social skills o Instrumental vs. reactive aggression Reactive: inappropriate reaction to social context. Disliked. Instrumental: Using aggression to get what you want. Popular kids use this. o Relational aggression (Nikki Crick) Harm through manipulation of reputation, withdrawing warmth. Has strong influence. Usually female and popular. Can be used to keep social status. Spreading rumors and maintaining popularity Sociometric Categories Frequently nominated as Infrequently nominated as best friend best friend Rarely disliked Popular Neglected (Withdrawn) Actively disliked by peers Controversial (Regina Rejected (Bullies) George) Problems among unpopular youth o Hostile Attributional Bias Ken Dodge A cognitive framework where the individual misinterprets neutral behavior as hostile. Very reactive: reactive aggression and both relational and physical. Leads to rejection Selection vs. socialization: Picking Friends o Selection: “Birds of a feather flock together” Attraction based on similarity o Socialization: “lay down with dogs, you’ll get fleas” Behavior influenced by friends How friends change you o Which comes first? Friends or behavior? Depression Depressed teens choose to make friends who are depressed Delinquency Already engaging in delinquency, select friends who are also interested/engaged in delinquency Drug use Select friends with similar interest in drugs. Socialization when friend starts using drugs. Developmental Difference o Monahan, Steinberg (2009) o Using Pathways Samples 1354 Adolescent criminal offenders 14% female 90% retention rate Wide variety of sample Longitudinal study of these offenders to see what type of friends they select (more delinquent or less delinquent) and if their own delinquent behaviors became more socialized. 14 – 15 yr olds: select friends who are delinquent also After that, socialization influences most of the kids increase in delinquent behavior What about individual differences? o High Resistance to peer influence: you will still see socialization effects, but for a shorter period of time o Low Resistance to peer influence: you will see socialization effects about one year longer than for kids with high resistance to peer influence. Can unpopular adolescents be helped? o Improve Social Competence Teach social skills Social problem solving o Group based interventions with delinquents Peer based, they are all similar Dishion & Colleagues Group interventions leads to increases in delinquent behavior Educational format for a way to continue delinquent behavior o Can be subtle, like eye contact Victimization and Harassment o [graph] Those who experienced victimization: show an increase in anger and harassment Those who both experienced and witnessed victimization: show less of an increase than in those who only experienced victimization first hand. It is better to suffer together. Sexuality Adolescent changes and sex o Biological (physical changes) Secondary sex characteristics: developed body parts that aren’t gonads Pregnancy is possible: (primary sex characteristics developed) Hormonal changes: stronger sexual desire o Cognitive Changes in conception of self: able to think about themselves sexually “Should I?”/ “Am I desirable?” Abstract reasoning, able to see ahead to possible sexual encounters o Social: Main influence New social meaning given to sexual and dating behavior Goals: o Understanding and respect of new body o Understanding of sexual arousal o Understanding sex is a personal choice o Understanding safe sex Society’s role in sexuality o Sexual socialization Ford and Beach (1951) – Cross national ethnography of societal views on sexuality Categories of society Permissive: very sexually open, public masturbation, sexuality is visible, techniques are perfected, continuous process of sexual exploration from childhood to adulthood. Everything is slow and talked about. Seen in indigenous cultures. Restrictive: Sex is taboo, not talked about. Girls and boys are usually kept separate until marriage. Rules and boundaries kept till marriage, same sex parents will inform child on day of wedding the ritual of sex and what is expected. A shocking process for the kids. Semi Restrictive: against teen pregnancy, open to social displays of sexuality. Mixed messages, exhibits cultural forms of sexuality, against (morally) sexual activity. The moral expectations do not fit the society’s openness to sexuality. Sexual Behavior o Evidence for sexual double standard Men usually are reacted to positively after virginity is lost, a conquest Women get mixed signals, sometimes taboo, sometimes looked down upon o Masturbation Doesn’t happen as often for girls during high school 50% of boys by 18 report masturbation 25% of girls by 18 report masturbation Surveys, teens usually answer the society’s “appropriate” answer, so usually answer no for topics such as sex experience and masturbation o Non-coital (non vaginal/penis) sexual expression Kissing, touching, and manual or oral stimulation Lower in danger of STI’s, STD’s, and pregnancy Sequence of sexual activity o [graph] Developmental sequence of first times in a relationship Kissing => French kissing => breast touching => penis touching => vagina touching => sexual intercourse => oral sex. (Usual sequence) Males: sequence starts before 15, average age Females: sequence start at 15, average age Happens progressively o [graph] Historical trend in sexual activity during adolescence Peaks in the 70’s-90’s Decreased a bit and stayed leveled since then o [graph] # of U.S. high school students who reported ever having sexual intercourse th th Trend from 9 grade to 12 grade o Increase in % from 9 to 12 th o [graph] Ethnicity and percentage of reported sexual activity Sex before 13: (called precocious sexual activity, dangerous) o Not many report precocious sex for both males and females, however it is higher for black individuals than white and Hispanic By 12 grade: large increase from % reporting precocious sex. Males more than females, highest among black students. o Parental monitoring and SES are a stronger influence than race itself 30% of girls say their first time wasn’t voluntary Younger girls with same age partners are far less likely to have sex that younger girls with older partners. o [graph] Age of first intercourse by gender and race Black: Females – 16.5, Males – 15 White: Females – 16.5, Males – 16.5 Hispanic: Females – 17, Males – 16.5 Asian: Females – 18, Males – 18 o [graph] Sexuality and the seasons: month of first intercourse Nonromantic relationships: peak in mid-june, summer break Romantic relationships: peak in mid-june, Dec. and Jan. Kids have sex when they have the opportunity, usually in the boy’s house, usually before parents come home from work. What role do peers play? o Peers engaged in sex => adolescent also engages in sex, even if peers are lying. Stronger influence among close clique Why? now it is the new norm; could be directly through communication (peer pressure); values of peers are important o Virginity pledges: swearing to parents or religious entity to keep virginity until marriage Primarily through adult structures, not likely between peers Does not work. Society has a norm towards sex. It’s unrealistic if puberty starts at 12 and marriage happens between 27 and 30 Does work sometimes if there is a moderate (40 – 50) # of other peers in school participating in pledge. Becomes their identity. It is better if they make a promise to themselves What role do parents play? o Authoritative: Better outcomes. Still have sex, but more likely to have safe sex and less likely to engages in precocious sex. Communication reduces risky sex. o One parental predictor of adolescent sex Household composition: single vs. 2 parent Single parent often dates, exposing child to sexual and dating behavior Less supervision Divorce may cause child to look for outward comfort and warmth, intimate relationships Genetically mediated Gender double standard, especially for girls Factors o Early sex Poverty; familial conflict; single parent homes; disengagement from school; lack of supervision; alcohol and drug abuse; early physical maturation; strong orientation towards independence; sexual victimization o Later sex Religiousness; regular church attendance; maternal disapproval; good academic performance; higher SES; higher parental influence Is sex a problem behavior? o There aren’t any negative psychological repercussions Early sexual activity may be a problem before the age of 16 o Friends with benefits Monahan and Lee (2008) Kids with friends with benefits are no different psychologically than kids in committed relationships. No depression o [graph] % of sexual experience Number of risk factors: an increase in one shows an increase in the other Males are more effected than females Homosexuality during adolescence o Not uncommon: 8% of boys 6% of girls o Sexual orientation vs. sexual role behavior vs. gender identity No connection between sexual orientation and sexual role behavior o Possible biological and social origins o Societal prejudice and ignorance between homosexuality likely to cause psychological distress for gay and lesbian adolescents High risk population to drugs and depression Contraceptive use o Irregular use 1/3 of males report not using the first time they had sex Why? Access (embarrassment) Infrequency of sex, unplanned nature Personal fable. I won’t get pregnant/get someone pregnant Abstinence-only sex ed in U.S. schools o Common methods of use Mostly condom use Pills, no method, or withdrawal 15-20% Other: lower: not sure; injection and condom o Increase in condom use seen, decrease in other methods o Two types of countries have low rates of teen pregnancy Those that are permissive about adolescent sex Denmark, Sweden Netherlands o They have explicit safe sex campaigns Those that adamantly forbid adolescent sex Japan, South Korea, Morocco o Adolescent strongly advised not to date