Week 12 Notes
Week 12 Notes PSYCH 280
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Shields on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 280 at Kansas State University taught by Mark Barnett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Psych Childhood and Adolescence in Psychlogy at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Cognition and Prosocial Behavior in Children His research on the effect of competition on sharing in children "Bowling Game Study" Expectations Concerning: Compete vs. no compete conditions - encouraging child to think they are competing Outcomes in competition - effect of emotion of children on prosocial behavior Age of participant - young vs. old "Bowling Game Study" 2nd and 5th grade boys Procedures of the study: Explained how it works then told that another kid would be playing in the other room Some told it was a competition and others not told Given feedback after the game Main Findings: No effects for 2nd grade boys For 5th grade boys: No Compete > Compete - donations Among Competitors: Winners > Losers, Tires- donations Competitiveness and Empathy Vicariously feeling others emotional state Overview of Study: Assessment of competitiveness: Teacher's ratings Assessment of empathy: Feshbach and Roe Measure -narrated slide sequences Major Findings: Boys: negative correlation between empathy and competitiveness Girls: not as negative as boys Competitiveness low correlation with empathy Effects of Athletic Competitions on Children's Interpersonal Behavior Summary of article, "Values and Violence in Sports" Condons violence Thrives on self interest Suspension of everyday morals Role of the team coach (and fans): Moral responsibility (win at all costs) Concluding Comments: How do we encourage the desire to compete/win in children without sacrificing prosocial emotions and behaviors? Psychological Problems in Children: Individual differences Gender differences Boys: under-controlled, externalizing symptoms Girls: over-controlled, internalizing symptoms Temper Tantrums Often reflect attempt to assert independence -attention, don't have control of emotions Suggestions for minimizing/preventing tantrums Encourage child to "use his/her words" Provide age-appropriate opportunities to make choices , options Responding to a child's temper tantrum Do not fight with them Make sure to "parent" them and not fight with them like you are their age Fears and Phobias In Children How do children lean fears? Direct experiences And "stimulus generalization" Associative learning (classical aversive conditioning) "Little Albert" (parental) modeling of fear and avoidance behavior [Avoidance --> negatively enforced by --> Decrease in Fear] Parental verbal warnings Issue of control A Specific Child Fear to Consider: School Phobia Irrational fear of school -more in girls than boys Child dealing with separation anxiety; parent may struggle with separation anxiety also Therapy for both child and parent Suggestions for handling fears in children Don't belittle the fear Use of play Reading stories that relate to their fear Autism Spectrum Disorder Kanner, 1943 Increased prevalence Old textbooks: 1/2000 - 1/5000. 2002: 1/150 2012: 1/88 2014: 1/68 1/42 BOYS 1/189 GIRLS Approximately 80% score below 70 on the standard IQ test Onset Some in infancy (label: Early Infantile Autism) Some 2-4 years old Recent study: approx 40% Typically higher functioning (eg: Asperger's Syndrome) Symptoms/Characteristics (infancy and beyond) Unresponsive to others May be indifferent to cuddling Aimless bursts of activity Mechanical ability "escape artists" Repetitive behaviors Some display SELF-INJURION BEHAVIOR (S.I.B) Use of aversive to control S.I.B. Language Deficits: MUTISM (delayed) echolalia -repeating what is said A Special Subgroup Autistic Savants (Rimland) Ordered; not very creative; structured; decrease with age Old term: "Idiot Savants" Brief Discussion of Etiology, Prognosis, and Treatment Etiology Nurture Kanner; Bettelheim Cold, emotionally unresponsive parents Nature Some genetic, biological, psychological flaws Indirect evidence for this view Prognosis Not great, but getting better Treatment Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) Important to start early Need to eliminate S.I.B. Major goal: establish communication/language
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