Bio Lecture 27+28: Biomes
Bio Lecture 27+28: Biomes Bio 211
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 211 at Northern Illinois University taught by Catherine Ausland in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Funds of Organismal Biology Lab in Biology at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Lecture 27 & 28: Biomes 1) Ecology Ecology= Study of interaction between organism and their environment Interaction between organisms and their environment includes: A) Abiotic (non-living) environment -Temperature -Soil characteristics (nutrients, texture) -Precipitation -Water Chemistry (pH, salinity) B) Biotic (living organism) environment Intraspecific (same species) Interspecific (different species) -Competitors -Predators, Parasites -Mates -Competitors, Prey -Social Groups -Symbionts Ecology can focus on different levels of organization -Population (same species in one area) -Community (population if different species) -Ecosystem (water, energy, and Nutrients + Chemical) -Landscape (different ecosystem lands together) -Biosphere (all lands around the world) Ecology may focus on 1 aspect of interaction: Physiological Ecology, Ecological Genetics, Behavioral Ecology Conservation Biology- study of protection, management, and recovery of biodiversity Environmental Biology- study of impacts of human activates on the environment (use fossil, fuels, water, agriculture) also benefits and effects of environment on humans 2) Global Climate is Determined by Earths Features and Physics A. Size and Position of earth Size Determines earth’s Gravity-> Gaseous Atmosphere (pulls gravity) Distance from Sun Determines earths average temperature-> Much water in Liquid B. Sunlight Spherical Shape-> amount of solar radiation (heat, light) per surface area is greater near equator. Lower near poles Low angle of incoming sunlight-> North Pole Sun directly overhead at equator-> Equator Low angle of incoming sunlight-> South Pole C. Earths Orbits the Sun -Once a year -Axis of rotation is constant relative plan of orbit -But whether it is tilted towards or away from the sun causes variation in: ->seasonal variation in day length-> seasonal variation in climate D. Density and Water holding Capacity of Air -As air warms, it expands and rises -Warmest at equator -Rising air cool (less pressure) and loses water -Cool air holds less water-> rain -Rising air masses over the equator establish additional circulation cells -Because descending air pulls down air next to it E. Ocean Currents can lead to different temperatures at the same latitude 3)Local Climates is Affected by Local Features A) Mountains can create rain shadow -Aspect (direction the slope of a mountain or hills faces) also affects sunlights and temperature, influencing the plants and animals that can live there B) Lake Effects -Water has high thermal inertia-> air temperature is less variable over water then land (doesn’t heat up as fast) EX] Summer are cooler, Winters are warmer near large body or water -Precipitation is greater downwind from large bodies of water -Range of temperature and precipitation across terrestrial parts of the earth 4) Biomes -Biomes= groupings by similar vegetation structure and look and associated with certain types of animals and abiotic features (Ex] desert, tropical forest) -Estuary= Transition Zone between river and open ocean -Species composition in a given biome may vary around, though appear similar Ex] via convergent evolution (organism living in the same condition) cacti in North America and euphorbs in African deserts 1) Tropical Forest -High rainfall year around or with pronounced dry season -Many Vegetation layer -Forest Floor: Low light -Biodiversity: High -Soil: Low in Nutrients -Many arboreal animals and epiphytes= grow on another plant non- parasitically 2) Savanna -Equatorial and Subequatorial -Seasons: not winter, summer but wet/dry seasons -Plants are adapted to regular fires, woody plants are sparse, but lots of grasses and forbs -Fauna (animals) often includes large migratory herbivores 3) Desert -Occur at ~30 degrees North and South, continents on West side -May be hot or colds -Key characteristics is little precipitation -Rare Large Herbivores -Plants and animals have adaptations to water scarcity 4) Chaparral -Mid latitude coasts -Summers: Hot dry -Winter: mild west -Plants include lots of woody shrubs -Fire adapted plants: resist burning, re-sprout from underground parts, germination triggered by high heat 5) Temperate Grassland -Seasonal droughts and occasional or regular fire -Fauna includes large herbivores [Ex: Bison] -Soil: deep fertile so lots of agriculture 6) Temperate Broad Leaf Forest -Large trees are mostly deciduous north hemisphere -Vegetation layers: fewer, simpler than tropics -Soil: deep fertile -Animals adapted for cold winters (hibernation, migration) 7) Northern Coniferous Forest or Taiga -High latitude or elevation -Short summers, long cold winters -Large areas dominated by single species -Cone-bearing trees (pines, firs, spruces) 8) Tundra -Arctic or alpine (mountain tops) -Temperature: cold all year -Deep soil is permanently frozen= permafrost -Vegetation low, with no trees ~Aquatic Biomes and Zone~ Photic Zone: sufficient light for photosynthesis (light in water) Aphotic: insufficient (darkness in the water) Benthic Zone (the land itself/bottom) Intertidal Zone= influenced by tides Abyssal Zone= extremely deep ocean bottom Turnover- mixes oxygenated water from surface with nutrients-rich water from bottom where detritus (dead stud) live Ex] Winter: Warmer at the bottom/ Colder at the top Summer: Cooler at the bottom/ Warmer at the surface 5) Species Distributions Global and local climates influence what species live in an area Interactions with environment and with other organisms determine the distribution of a species (where it lives) Abundance can very across the species distribution, usually highest where conditions ideal and resources are also abundant Density Map-showing where a species is more or less abundant Why doesn’t a particular species live in an area? 1) Can get to that area, or is its range limited by dispersal? (movement of individual, seed, can it cross certain areas) 2) If it can get there, will it find the right kind of habitat? (a living condition?) 3) If it can get there and the right general habitat is present, it might still be limited by biotic and abiotic factors -Abiotic factors that can limit the distribution of a species: Temperature, water availability For aquatic animals, salinity affects ability to regulate water balance = limited to fresh or salt water Plants too: more or less tolerant of salt water Soil conditions: PH, nutrients, physical structure Determine: 1) what plants can grow in a location? 2) what crops can be in a location? ~Overcoming Dispersal Limitation~ Long distance dispersal can be a big effects: -Add a new member to a biological community -Adaptive radiation resulting in evaluation of new species -Human accidentally or purposely introduce species, resulting in serious expensive problems if they become invasive species Focusing on multiple species: Community ecology (more then 1 species living) Climate and environment -> Species distribution <- Effects of other species Conditions and abundances Focusing on one species: population ecology