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Week 10 Notes

by: Nicholas Petrusevski

Week 10 Notes Bio209WeekOneNotes

Nicholas Petrusevski
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Here are the week 10 lecture notes, make sure to look over and being studying.
Funds of Organismal Biology
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Petrusevski on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio209WeekOneNotes at Northern Illinois University taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Funds of Organismal Biology in Liberal Arts at Northern Illinois University.

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Date Created: 11/14/15
Monday, November 9, 2015 BIOS 209 Week 10 Notes Ecology, Biomes, Global Climate (Interactions Between Organisms and Their Environment Include) -Abiotic environment: temperature precipitation social characteristics e.g., nutrients, texture water chemistry e.g., pH, salinity, DO -Biotic environment: competitors mates social groups predators, parasites competitors, prey symbionts -Infraspecific: competitors mates social groups -Interspecific: predators, parasites competitors, prey symbionts 1 Monday, November 9, 2015 (Ecology) -interaction between organisms and their environment -ecologists can focus on different levels of organization -Ecology may focus on 1 aspect of interactions (Global Climate) -determined by the earth’s features and physics -Gaseous atmosphere: size determines the earth’s gravity -distance form the sun (93 million miles) determines earth’s average temperature = this means there is a lot of water in liquid form -Spherical shape: amount of solar radiation (heat, light) per surface area, it is greatest near equator and lower near poles -Earth orbits the sun: once a year axis of rotation tilt is constant relative to plane of orbit weather is tilted toward or away from sun this causes vacation is seasons and climate -Density and water holding capacity of air: as air warms it expands and rises warmest at the equator rising air cools (less pressure) and loses water cool air holds less water- rain rising air masses over the equator establish additional circulation cells because descending air pulls down the air next to it 2 Monday, November 9, 2015 -Ocean currents: can lead to different temperatures at the same latitude -Local Climate: is affected by local features e.g., a mountain can create rain shadows aspect (direction the slope of a mountain or hill faces also affects sunlight and temperature, influencing the plants and animals that can live there -Lake effects: water has high thermal inertia i.e., summers are cooler and winters are warmer near larger bodes of water precipitation is greater downwind from large bodies of water (Biomes) -groupings by similar vegetation structure and look and associated with certain types of animal;s and abiotic features e.g., desert, tropical rain forest Which Level….. fresh water march, estuary= transition zone between river and open ocean), coral reef -species composition in a given biome may vary around the world, though paper similar, e.g., via convergent evolution e.g., cacti in North America and ephors in African desert 1. Tropical Forest -high rainfall year round or had pronounced dry season -many vegetation layers -forest floor: low light - biodiversity is high -many arboreal animals and epiphytes (grow on another plant non-parasitically) 3 Monday, November 9, 2015 -soils are low in nutrients 2. Savanna -equatorial and subequatorial -seasons: no winter, summer, but wet/dry seasons -plants are adapted to regular fires (woody plants are sparse, but a lot of grasses and forbs -fauna (animals) often includes large migratory herbivores 3. Desert -occur at what latitude? -30 N and S -on West side of continents -may be hot or cold -key characteristics is little precipitation -large herbivores are rare -plants and animals have adaptations to water scarcity E.g., Desert Darkling Beetle Namibia 4. Chaparral -midlatitude coasts -summers: hot dry -winters: mild/wet -plants include lots of: woody shrubs -includes fire adapted plants: resist burning, resprout from underground plants, germination triggered by high heat 4 Monday, November 9, 2015 5. Temperate Grassland -seasonal droughts and occasional or regular fire -fauna includes large herbivores, e.g., bison -soil: deep, fertile -this means that there is A LOT of agriculture 6. Temperate Broadleaf Forest -large trees are mostly deciduous (lose leaves every winter) -vegetation layers: fewer, simpler, than tropics -soil: dep, fertile -animals adapted for cold winters (hibernation, migration) -Ecotone: where two biomes and blend into each other *much of Illinois is forest-praise ecotone -forest areas were historically dominated by oaks, so much of the area is described as oak savanna 7. Northern Coniferous Forest -high latitude or elevation -short summers,, long cold winters -large areas dominated by single species -cone-bearing trees (pines, firs, spruces) 8. Tundra -arcticic alpine (mountain tops) 5 Monday, November 9, 2015 -temperature: cold all year -deep soil is permanently frozen = permafrost -vegetation low, with no trees -Aquatic Biomes: -cover the majority of the earth’s surface -mostly open ocean (75%) -U.S-Canadian Great Lakes Contain -1/5 of world’s fresh water -Aquatic Biomes Zones: photic zone: sufficient light for photosynthesis aphotic: insuffiecient benthic zone: bottom *ocean specific terms: intertidal zone= influenced by tides abyssal zone= extremely deep ocean bottom -Turnover: mixes oxygenated water from surface with nutrient rich water from bottom where (dead stuff) sinks to -Species Distributions: global and local climate influence what species live in an area interactions with environment and with other organisms determine the distribution (where it lives) of a species *Abundance can vary across the species’ distribution usually highest where conditions ideal and resources are also abundant 6 Monday, November 9, 2015 Why doesn't a particular species live in an area? 1. Can it get to that area, or is its range limited by dispersal? (movement of individuals, seeds, etc.) EX: We don't have European Hedgehogs here 2. If it can get there, will it find the right kind of habitat? EX: We also don't have Puffins, even though they could fly here 3. If it can get there and the right general habitat is present, it might still be limited by biotic and abiotic factors *abiotic factors that can limit the distribution of a species are Temperature and water availability -for aquatic animals, salinity affects ability to regulate water balance = limited to fish or salt water -plants too: more or less tolerant of salt water -abiotic factors can limit the distribution of a species: soil conditions: pH nutrients physical structures Determine: 1. what plants can grow in a location what crops can be grown in a location 2. -Overcoming Dispersal Limitations: long distance dispersal can have big effects: # add a new member to a biological community # adaptive radiations resulting in evolution of new species …..humans can accidentally or purposely introduce species to new places > this can result in serious and expensive problems if they become invasive species -Community ecology: focuses on multiple species 7 Monday, November 9, 2015 -Population ecology: focuses on one species -Ecology: interaction between organisms and their environment ecologists can focus of different levels of organization -Population: same species live in same area rely on the same resources interact and breed with each other -Boundaries: may be natural (e.g., an island) or arbitrary) (e.g., DeKalb County) Why study populations? 1. -manage animals -control pests -Epidemiology study of diseases in populations -consevation of rare and endangered species Population Size -increases in 2 ways: BIRTHS AND IMMIGRATION -decreases in 2 ways DEATHS AND EMIGRATION 8 Monday, November 9, 2015 2. Estimating Population Size -mark-recapture method Steps 1. Capture 2. Mark and release number marked 3. Recapture = proportion of population marked Estimating Population Sixe Example: 1. Capture qo snakes, mark and release them 2. wait a little bit 3. capture 10 more snakes. If 1 of these is marked, then : -10% of the snakes in the population are marked -you marked 10 snakes -these 10 marked snakes represent 10% of total population -the total population size 100 Mark -recapture calculations N/M=n/r N=Mn/R N= population size (unknown) M= #marked in 1st capture n= #captured in 2nd census R= # marked recaptures in 2nd census 9 Monday, November 9, 2015 -Dispersion: pattern of spacing individuals in a population -Clumped -Uniform: e.g., via territoriality defense of a space against other individuals -Random: position of each individual is independent of other individuals -occurs in absence of strong attractions or repulsion Life Tables- follow the survival patterns of a population -Follows Cohort (same-aged group) from brith until everybody’s dead Projecting further population size Who cares Zoos: 1. What is smallest population that avoids extinction? 2. Conversation 3. Bioindustry: farmers, fisheries, microbial industry: what is the maximum harvest? 4. Pest management: At what size does control need to be applied? Projecting Future Population Size -by using models -it helps us think about complex reality e.g., by simplifying, by picking out most influential variables 10 Monday, November 9, 2015 mathematical models are used in many field like: engineering, science, weather don’t have to be 100 % accurate to be useful Base Model: with unlimited resources, populations tend to exhibit exponential growth This gives a J-shaped form for N verses t Note: #added per unit time per capita is constant= r #added per time is accelerating Where can we expect exponential growth? -populations in new or unfilled environments e.g., following extreme population decline e.g., in highly seasonal environments e.g., spring insects here (Kruger National Park, S. Africa, after hunting was banned) Change in population = birds-deaths r = b - m -b > m, then more births than deaths and population grows -b < m, then fewer births than deaths and population shrink -b=m, then same number of births and deaths and population constant if r=0, then zero population growth i.e., constant N 11 Monday, November 9, 2015 12


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