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class notes test 3

by: Annmarie Jaghab

class notes test 3 BIL 226

Marketplace > University of Miami > Biology > BIL 226 > class notes test 3
Annmarie Jaghab
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General Botany
Dr. Groff
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annmarie Jaghab on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIL 226 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Groff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Botany in Biology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 11/14/15
Lecture 20: seed plants intro -angiosperm: fruit is in a vessel -4 phylum of gymnosperms (naked seeds) -need a heterosporous lifecycle to have a megasporangium and therefore to have an ovule (integumented megasporangium) -a megasporangium is called a nucellus (it is diploid! And so are the integuments surrounding it) -the spore of vascular plants is produced by meiosis and is haploid but the sporangium is diploid -gymnosperm is a paraphyletic group -an ovule is an integumented megasporangium -the integuments of an ovule are diploid -in the seed plants, the megaspore stays on the parent sporophyte and develops into the megagametophyte inside the megasporangium -pollination: a pollen grain (microgametrophyte,n) often from another sporophyte is transported to the ovule. -pollination is not the same as fertilization -a pollen grain is NOT a spore -a pollen grain starts as a microspore but then undergoes nuclear division inside the spore wall. -pollen grain germinates inside the ovule and the pollen grain releases the sperm which then undergoes fertilization where it fertilizes the egg inside the archegonium of the megagametophyte inside the ovule. This fertilization forms the zygote (2n) and this zygote divides to form the multicellular embryo (2n). -A seed is a fertilized ovule containing zygote or embryo sporophyte -the female gametophyte is haploid and created from the diploid nucellus -the embryo is a diploid sporophyte -so there are 3 generations present in a seed at the same time -microspores are made in microsporangium -meiosis produces 4 megaspores (all haploid) but only one persists as a functional megaspore and it will undergo mitotic divisions to make a multicellular megagametophyte -sometimes you can have multiple embryos in the same pine nut (polyembryony more than one embryo in a seed). -strobillus of a pine tree has two types: one makes the pollen (pollen cones) and one makes seeds (seed cones) and inside these cones you have microsporophylls -fertilization happens inside the ovule -wind deposits the pollen on the ovule: pollination -stamen: a kind of leaf that bears the microsporangia -carpels: have the ovaries on them so they make the ovules and are the site of pollination and later fertilization Lecture 21: non-flowering seed plants -gynmosperms are probably a paraphyletic group -the seed evolved before the flower and so we cannot name them as a clade -an ovule: an integumented megasporangium -on the outside of the ovule is the integumented megasporangia and the ovules themselves are covered by a structure called an ovary -the energy source is the female gametophyte -3 organs: root, stem, and leaves -above the first node is the epicotyl -at the first node is the seed leave called the cotyledon -below the first node is the hypocotyl -dicots have two cotyledons (ex. Oats, daisies, peas) -monocots have one cotyledon (ex. Grasses, corn, onion, veins are parallel to one another) -gymnosperms are neither monocots nor dicots -pteridophytes: Non-seed vascular plants (vascular plants that reproduce with spores) Lecture 22: -megasporanguium is sporophyte generation -the ovule itself is enclosed in other structures to make the fruit of the flowering plant -bryophytes, pteridophyte, and progynosperms all have free spores -early seed plants have a structure where the ovule is surrounded by separate leaf life structures but in the gymnosperms found today we usually find an opening called a micropyle which is a small opening for pollen to enter the ovule. -polytomy is a splitting of the branch of a cladogram with more than two groups (two would be dichotomy) -in hypothesis b diagram: the gymnosperms are represented as monophyletic -in hypothesis c: gymnosperms are not monophyletic -in hypothesis a: the angiosperms are monophyletic and the gymnosperms are monophyletic -a pollen grain is NOT a spore -a pollen grain is multicellular -Angiosperms show co-evolution with animal pollinators -flowering plants have a heterosporous life cycle -whorl is the way leaves are arranged at each node (3 or more leaves at each node) -1 leaf at a node is alternate -2 leaves at the same node is opposite -3 or more leaves at the same node are whorled Lecture 23: -embryology and fertilization is different for flowering plants than for the gymnosperms -no ovary in the gynosperms -stamen has at the end microsporangia which have an anther at the end which is where the pollen is made -carpals can be fused together and develop -unified structure in the middle of the flower is a pistil (contains the ovary with the ovule inside which matures into a fruit, then a style, and then a stigma) -certain plants can only be pollinated by a specific species or some can even be pollinated by just wind -human food security relies on pollination and our bees are declining -lower most node collective term for all of sepal is whorl=calyx -the node above this is the petal, whorl=corolla -collectively the perianth is the corolla and the calyx -the whorl of all the stamen is the androecium (male) -gynoecium is all of the carpals/pistals -calyx and corolla have what in common?? They lack sporangia so they don’t make pollen or ovules, they are sterile! -the pistal is the visually separate part of the gynoecium -the receptacle is the stem at the bottom of the flower -each carpel has an ovary, style and stigma (so if you only pollinate one stigma on one carpel, the other carpel won’t get pollinated because it’s own stigma was not pollinated) -apocarpus gynoecium: flower with separate carpals -gynoecium is the female part -pedicle is the internode that is right below the calyx -the stamen is between the gynoecium and the corolla -syncarpous has a single style and many stigmas (might be 3 carpals but the compartments with the ovules fused together) -apple has 5 different seed compartments/lobes. The stem is the pedicel. At the other end is the sepal and the little hair things are stamen Lecture 24: -gynecium: the last row of whorls -there can be one pistil with 5 carpals or you can have 5 pistils for 5 carpals -stem=receptacle -epigynous insertion: sepals, petals (calyx and corolla) and stamen are located above the gynecium. Ovary is inferior -hypogynous: sepals, petals (calyx and corolla) and stamen are located below the gynecium. Ovary is superior -perigynous: petals, sepals, (calyx and corolla) and stamen are located around the gynecium and there is a cup like structure formed. -pedicle=pednucle -inferior: pedicile is at one end and sepals are at the other far end ex. Apple -superior: ovary is between the sepals and the stigma is at the other far end ex. tomato Lecture 25: -all petals=corolla -all sepals=calyx -diploid sporophyte stage is the dominant stage -inside the anthers are cells that undergo meiosis and produce haploid spores -the number of carpals is sometimes more than the number of pistils because the carpals can fuse together -an apple has 5 carpals (seen in cross section) -know apple and other fruits ovary position -cavity inside a fruit is called a locule -an ovary is ovules enclosed by carpal tissue -apple and tomato are both syncarpous gynceium (multiple fused carpals) -caylx, corolla, and andrecium locations are how you tell if they are hypogynous or epigynous, or peigynous -an apple has a hypanthium (floral cup) -can’t tell number of carpals from a longitudinal section!!! -inflorescence is a flowering region of the shoot -naked seed aka gynosperm if you see the integument only -carpal wall is diploid sporophyte -style is diploid sporophyte -sepals diploid sporophyte -anther itself is diploid sporophyte -NO ENDOSPERM in the gymnosperm -endosperm is ONLY in the FLOWERING PLANTS/ANGIOSPERMS -plants can undergo double fertilization -endosperm is 3n because there is two different fusion events -endosperm is more closely related to the maternal part Lecture 26 -food source for the embryo is the endosperm -embryo sac nuclei are haploid -both the shoot and the root have apical meristems that they grow out of -leaves are never on roots. Roots have root caps -No sporangia growing off a root Lecture 27 -only shoot forms leaves, nodes and internodes. A ROOT DOES NOT HAVE ANY OF THIS -root hairs are single epidermal cells that grow outward and it they are near the root cap -lateral root is multicellular and forms endogenously and the bursts out of the parent sideways -root cap and root hairs are all unicellular -xylem and phloem are on different radi for roots -xylem and phloem are on the same circle for shoots -on test: black and white plant diagram!! RC is root cap. The things protruding out are lateral roots. Axillary bud is the little bud sticking out -taproot: long root that grows straight down -roots themselves can also undergo secondary growth -secondary growth only occurs in the region where the plant is not elongating -roots come down from above ground parts of a fig tree. Strangler trees. Seedling figs are in bird feces and get transported that way and then often grow as epiphytes on other trees. After they find a place to grow, they thicken by secondary growth and the thick roots graft together. Secondary growth can occur and the roots can join together to form a thick stem that is really many roots -pores called lenticles are for gas exchange -carrot is a tap root with secondary growth -turnip has a lot of secondary growth -sweet potato is a root with secondary thickening but it can make shoots. No seed, without sexual reproduction -sweet potato is a class 4 plant, it can make shoots from roots and roots from shoots -take an avocado seed in water it germinates and grows Lecture 28 -roots and roots hairs are EXOGENOUS while lateral roots are ENDOGENOUS -never sporangia on a root, no meiosis occurs on a root -leaf base: part of the leaf that is attached to the stem -petiole=leaf stalk. Some leaves only have a base and blade and no petiole because in development, it is the last thing to appear -compound blade: made of different regions of photosynthetic material -axillary bud is what tells you it is one leaf -the ones without the axillary buds are leaflets -not sessile if it has a petiole -in almost every case, a leaf is determinate in length. It doesn’t have meristems.


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