Chapter 14: Personality & Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Lecture Notes
Chapter 14: Personality & Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Lecture Notes PSYCH-1000
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynn Beveridge on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-1000 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Rollins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Lecture Notes Chapter 14 Personality amp Self amp Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders November 913 2015 Introductory Psychology with Dr Rollins Chapter 14 Personality amp Self 9one s characteristic way of thinking feeling and acting that distinguishes one individual from another a Study of personality includes personal differences biological roots of personality basic dimensions of personality and how personality interacts with the environment 4 aiiroaches i Sigmund Freud 18561939 1 Lived in a conservative time of sexual repression 2 Psychoanalytic theory was the rst theory of personality 3 Not correct but very in uential 4 Emphasis on childhood experiences sexual and aggressive urges and the unconscious mind a 9thoughts feelings memories and desires that we are not aware are happening 5 Was a doctor who specialized in the nervous system a Thought psychological issues might be the cause of physical ills b Thought that the patient discovering what the underlying problem was would solve the physical ill c Used 9 saying whatever pops into the mind at the time 1 Used 9believed symbolic dreams required interpretation 6 3 comionents to personality i Part of personality we are born with ii Instincts and unconscious urges iii 9 guides you towards what feels good iv Immediate grati cation v Newborns i Develops to satisfy the ID in more socially acceptable ways ii Operates under the 9takes the constraints of reality into consideration iii First few weeks of life iv Mediator between ID amp SUPEREGO i Develops at ages 45 ii Conscience iii Operates under the 9what is right and wrong iv Demands perfection V Feelings of guilt The mind is like an iceberg because what you are seeing is just a small part of the whole Most of the iceberg in underwater and most of the mind lies beneath our conscious awareness 9unconscious psychological or behavioral techniques that protect us from unpleasant motions b distorting memory a h pushing troubling thoughts out of awareness Freud believed that personality developed in childhood in a series of psychosexual sta es In each stage the ID is focused on pleasing an h pleasure sensitive areas of body a Believed people s problems later in life were due to certain zones not being satisfied in these stages i 9maladaptive behavior enduring focus on a particular erogenous zone b l i Birth 15 years ii Erogenous zone mouth iii Infants get pleasure from sucking and biting iv If there is a problem with weaning oral xation the person will develop problems with overeating smoking or sarcasm in adulthood v If they were weaned too early the person will be overoptimistic and gullible in adulthood c 2 i 15 3 years ii Erogenous zone anus iii Toddlers obtain pleasure going to the bathroom or not going to the bathroom iv If children are toilet trained too early they will be uptight controlling and detail oriented in adulthood d 3 i ii iii iv vi 3 6 years Erogenous zone genitals Children en39o leasant genital stimulation boys have a sexual desire for their mothers so they want to eliminate their fathers but they are afraid the father will cut off their penis so instead bo s t to be more like their fathers 9 girls are strongly attached to their mothers they wish they had penises and they think their mothers cut off their penises so girls transfer their affection to their fathers but they are afraid they ll lose their mothers love so they transfer their affection back to their mothers and desire to have babies instead of penises Problems in this stage lead to issues with ender orientation in adulthood e 4 h i ii iii f 5 i ii iii 6 puberty No erogenous zone Social stage Puberty throughout life Erogenous zone genitals Sexual feelings transfer from parents to people within one s own age group ii 9 early followers of Freud l Jung Erickson Homey Adler 2 Place more emphasis on the conscious mind and social in uences and less emphasis on seX and aggression iii Overall the psychodynamic approach focuses on inner con icts and the relationship between the conscious and the unconscious mind iv Tests subjects respond to ambiguous stimuli l Thouiht to iroi39ect the unconscious mind a Ambiiuous iictures 4 Problems Interpretation is subjective not reliable and not valid v Problems with the Psychoanalytic Approach 1 Unscientifichas not provided testable predictions 2 Not supported by research a Oral xation has been disproved 3 A bene t of this approach is the focus on the importance of the unconscious mind i Optimisticsees people as basically good ii Believes we are all guided by an innate drive to grow and reach our full potential selfactualization iii Roger s PersonCentered Theory 1 People will always strive to grow and reach their full potential if they have a supportive environment relationships 2 Relationships must have 1 Genuineness 2 Empathy 3 Acce tance s heme genuine love and acceptance with no strings attached a Necessa for rowth 4 nenn accepted by meeting others standards iv Problems with the humanistic approach it is unrealistic and vague i Personality is a combination of 9 speci c stable internal characteristics ii Tests Questionnaires that discover traits then factor analysis to detect patterns 1 Correlated test iiuestions represent a basic trait dimension 1 2 Dimensions a lntroversion vs Extraversion b Stability vs Instability 2 Biological Basis a Based on the baseline activity in the autonomic nervous system as well as how reactive the nervous system tends to be b Extraverts 1 ii iii iv v vi Less nervous system activity drives them to seek stimulations More sensitive to reward Experience more positive emotions Less sensitive to pain More decorative clothes stylegtcomfort Keep their doors open welcoming c Introverts i ii Have a higher baseline activity in the nervous system More sensitive to punishment iii Experience more neutral emotions iv More comfortable clothes comfotgtstyle V Salivate more when they taste lemon juice vi More reactive nervous systems 1 2 3 Behavioral Approach System BAS a Sensitivity to reward b People with a highly active BAS are more likely to seek out rewards because rewards are more rewarding to them i More positive feelings vulnerable to impulsivity Behavioral Inhibition System BIS a Sensitivity to punishment b People with a highly active BIS are more likely to avoid punishment because punishment affects them more i More vulnerable to negative emotions and anxiety BAS and BIS are independent of each other 4 Well suiiorted bi scienti c research on the brain 1 2 5 traits Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuoticism a OCEAN Test 9measure several traits at once a Neuroticism Extraversion O enness Personality Inventory Revised i Measures big 5 b Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory i Assesses personality as well as psychological disorders vi Problems with the Trait Approach it is descriptive rather than ex lanato e lnteraction between personality thinking behavior and the situation l 2 Believed that personality and the environment in uence each other Our personality in uences what situations we put ourselves in and who we hang outwith and then those things in uence our personality We are both products and producers of our environment f The Self 1 2 We behave according to our expectations of results What we expect depends on our perception of personal control i Feelings of control over one s life ii Linked with higher achievement health indeiendence and wellbeing i Lack feelings of control over one s life ii Linked with de ression iii i when one gives up on efforts to control events after experiencing helplessness 1 Seligman and Maier s experiments with dogs electric shock and learned helplessness i 9 self worth 1 Too much or too little can be harmful 2 No correlation with intelligence 3 High selfesteem i Fragile insecure selfesteem ii More likely to behave with violence or aggression when they receive negative feedback or when their selfesteem is challenged by someone they see as inferior ii 9 our tendency to think well of ourselves 1 2 Humans have a tendency to take credit when things go well More pronounced in people with high selfesteem and to place blame when things go wrong 3 Tendenc to overestimate our attractiveness iii 1 lllusion of superiority People tend to see themselves as immune to the self serving bias 2 Less pronounced in Asia 3 Depressed people rate themselves closer to what outside observers rate them as Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders in general a Psychological Disorder Mental Illness Psychopathology i All the same b Mental health vs Mental illness i No clearcut boundary ii 9ongoing patterns of thought emotion and behavior that impair functioning deviate from the norm cause distress and disrupt lives 0 50 of Americans will meet the criteria of a mental illness at some point in their lives 1 Biopsychosocial Approach i Biological factors genes ii Psychological factors how a person interprets What happens to them selfesteem iii Sociocultural factors stress poverty culture 1 Ex Depression in China is more likely to manifest itself in physical ailments because there is a stigma on mental health issues 2 In America males tend to extemalize their distress while females internalize it 3 found across cultures mental illnesses include Schizophrenia Depression 0CD Bi olar 4 only found in certain cultures a Anorexia amp Bulimia found in westemized cultures with a thin ideal b Genital retraction syndrome found in Southeast Asia 0 Fear of penises being stolen by Witches found in Africa i Stress model ii States that everyone has a predisposition to certain disorders iii Whether one has the disorder depends on their degree of redis osition and their amount of stress f i Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ii 5th edition iii Most commonly used manual iv Heavily supported by research v Categorizes disorders and lists their symptoms vi Problem labels and stigmatizes people ll Sieciflc Psicholoiical Disorders i ii iii iv vi vii viii Psychological Symptoms worry nervousness fear dread trouble concentrating Physical Symptoms sympathetic arousalsweating dizziness shaking nausea Becomes a disorder when it is excessive longlasting and disru tive to dail life ewhm people anxiety for a majority of the time for no reason 1 Free oating not attached to any situation or environment 2 Tense worried irritable trouble concentrating exaggerated startle response hypervigilant insomnia nausea dizziness 9when people experience recurrent unpredictable panic attacks 1 Sudden intense anxie 2 Can lead to 9fear of situations Where escape is difficult or Where help might not be available 9when people show a strong irrational fear of a speci c object or situation that is not likely to be dangerous 1 Most people understand that their phobia is irrational 2 Common phobias include being alone ying storms water blood enclosed spaces animals insects hei hts etc i fear of other peoples judgments l Leads people to avoid social situations Causes of Anxiety Disorders 1 Genetic predisposition 2 Neurotransmitter imbalancesserotonin glutamate 3 More sensitive autonomic nervous system 4 Psychological and Social factors a Neuroticism b 9more likely to pay attention to stimuli that can potentially be threatening i More likely to interpret stimuli as threatening Low 9feeling effective Stressful events e Learning fear or anxiety through observation classical conditioning operant conditioning Pd Flashbacks nightmares haunting memories jumpy cranky withdrawn insomnia Horriflc uncontrollable Common in veterans and sexual assault victims Very vulnerable More sensitive and reactive nervous systems i ii iii Obsessions uncontrollable thoughts 1 Anxiety fuels compulsion Compulsions irresistible urges repetitive behaviors 1 Offer temporary relief 2 Often very time consuming Causes 1 Genetic predisposition 2 Neuroticism 3 Stress 4 Neurotransmitter imbalances d i ii iii v1 vii Sadness and hopelessness for most of the time for at least 2 weeks Psychological symptoms sadness guilt low selfesteem pessimism crying easily anxiety poor concentration isolation l 9loss of pleasure Physical symptoms change in eating and sleeping habits pain low energy weakened immune system Recurrent episodes Shows signs in early adulthood Found in all cultures Most common psychological disorder