1/27 & 1/29 lecture notes
1/27 & 1/29 lecture notes PSYC 3341
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Reyes on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3341 at University of Houston taught by Waguspack in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 218 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
Chapter 2 Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System CELLS IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM 0 NeuronsResponsible for processing and transmission of info throughout the nervous system 0 GliaCells that support neurons and perform other functions PROPERTIES OF NEURON 3types 1 Sensory gather info about environment 2 Motor control muscle movements 3 lnterneurons all in CNS central nervous system 2 types local and relay 0 4 basic parts 0 Soma cell body 0 Dendrites o Axon 0 Terminal Buttons Morphology shape 0 Multipolar most common 0 Bipolar primarily sensory o Unipolar primarily somatosensory Membrane o Comprised of a phospholipid bilayer D phosphorus and fatty tissues INTERNAL COMPONENTS OF THE NEURON o Cytoplasm Nucleus Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Ly5050mes Blood does not 0 MICI39O EUbUles have direct contact GLIAL CELLS 39 W the neurons 0 3 baSIC types 0 Astrocytes Provides physical support Regulates chemical composition of extracellular uid Provides nourishment to neurons Cleans up debris in brain Produces glial scarring o Microglia Also assist in phagocytosis Functions as the brain39s immune system Protects brain from invading microorganisms Responsible for in ammation following brain damage o Oligodendrocytes responsible for Myelination Support axons Provides myelin sheath for neurons in CNS 0 Schwann Cells Same function as oligodendrocytes but in PNS Also responsible for myelination O Oligodendrocytes vs Schwann Cells 0 Oligodendrocytes may provide up to 50 segments of myelin O Schwann cells only provide one segment of myelin eaCh Myelin O Schwann cells assist with axon regrowth in the PNS Sheath o Oligodendrocytes are unable to serve the same function due to the properties of astrocytes following injury insulating material made of 80 lipid and 20 protein Not continuous spaces between segments at Nodes of Ranvier Allows to be more energy ef cient Allows to conduct action potentials faster Prevents quotcross talkquot between adjacent neurons 2 electrical wires Insulation protects the wires from having a reaction when they touch The myelin sheath acts as the insulation BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER 0 Some substances in the blood are toxic to neurons 0 Capillary walls in the brain t tightly together to form the bloodbrain barrier o maintain balance of extracellular uid 0 Weaker in postrema area vomit center REFLEX ARCS AN EXAMPLE OF NEURAL COMMUNICATION l brain not involved 0 Sensory neuron detects harmful stimulus O Synapses onto interneuron interneuron stimulates motor neuron 0 Motor neuron l muscular contraction pulling hand away from harmful stimulus ACTION POTENTIAL KEY TERMS O Resting Potential 70 mV Depolarization neuron less negatively charged relative to resting potential Hyperpolarization more negatively charged relative to resting potential Threshold of Excitation membrane potential that must be reached to trigger an action potential FORCES RESPONSIBLE FOR MEMBRANE POTENTIAL O Diffusion molecules distribute themselves evenly throughout the medium in which they dissolve o Electrostatic Pressure basically opposites attract OOOOO IONIC CONCENTRATIONS OF THE NEURON Ion charged particle Cation positively charged l cats are not positive Anion negatively charged Important Ions 0 Organic Anions A39 UNABLE to leave cell 0 Potassium K heavily concentrated INSIDE neuron 0 Sodium Na concentrated OUTSIDE neuron o Chloride CI39 OUTSIDE PROCESS OF THE ACTION POTENTIAL D Figure 221 log 48 Threshold reached Na channels open Na rushes in K channels open K leaves cell Na channels become refractory cannot open K continues to leave K channels close Na channels reset NaK transporters return cell to resting potential exchange 3 Na for 2 K OWU39lbUJNH CONCEPTS IN NEURAL COMMUNICATION All or none law once AP is triggered continues down the axon in non decremental fashion Rate law strength of stimulus or variations in info being conducted cause variations in the rate of neuronal ring Cable Properties passive conduction of electrical current down the axon in a decremental fashion AP39S IN MYELINATED AXONS Referred to as quotsaltatory conductionquot Myelin seals off the neuron from extracellular uid AP travels through myelinated axon via cable properties until reaching a Node of Ranvier AP refreshed at nodes continues down the axon Multiple Sclerosis o Autoimmune disease D immune system attacks own body 0 Symptoms weakness lack of coordination impaired vision amp speech 0 Marked by multiple transient neurological symptoms D quotCan you see Are you feeling weakquot COMMUNICATION BTWN NEURONS Synaptic Transmission transmission of messages from one neuron to another across synapse Synapse space between terminal button of one neuron and membrane of another neuron 3 types of synapses o Axodendritic o Axosomatic o Axoaxonic Vesicles small hollow structure containing neurotransmitter Exocytosis the process by which neurotransmitter molecules are released from a presynaptic neuron l so it can bind to next neuron AP opens voltage dependent Ca2 channels D calcium channels in terminal button O Ca2 causes proteins that vesicles are docked with to move apart D once vesicle is done releasing neurotransmitter it is reused O Creates an opening through which neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft O Neurotransmitter binds to postsynaptic receptors D what happens after exocytosis o lonotropic NT binds ion channel opens l depending on what kind of channel it is will determine what kind of change will take place in the cell Becomes positive or negative charge Direct fast and shortacting o Metabotropic NT binds Gprotein activation D indirect second messenger system Slow longlasting 0 Binding causes EPSP excitatory post synaptic potential positive charge we want this or IPSP inhibitory PSP negative 0 Termination of post synaptic potentials caused by 0 Reuptake 0 Enzymatic Deactivation NEURAL INTEGRATION O Neural Integration interactions of the effects of Axon hillock is EPSP s and lPSP s on a neuron 0 Spatial Summation adding together of EPSPs Kgslnggerythmg generated simultaneously at many different 39 synapses on a dendrite Above threshold 0 Temporal Summation adding together EPSPs action potentiaL generated at same synapse if they occur in rapid Beow threshoId succession within 115 msec of one another no action 0 Membrane potential at axon hillock determines potential whether or not an action potential occurs Alteration of NT Release 0 Autoreceptors receptor on the presynaptic membrane that responds to NT released by its own neuron O Axoaxonic Synapses modulates NT release through presynaptic inhibition decreasing NT release or presynaptic facilitation increasing NT release As consequence of the activity of the sodium potassium transporters intracellular sodium concentrations are kept low Chapter 3 Structure of the Nervous System 0 Terms 0 Anterior amp Rostral towards front or beak Posterior amp Caudal towards tail Dorsal on the back or top for brain Know Ventral on the belly or bottom for brain Lateral to the side Medial towards the center or midline lpsilateral same side 0 Contralateral opposite side Sections of Nervous system OOOOOO 0 Transverse coronal or frontal Horizontal Sagittal and midsagittal Divisions of Nervous System 0 Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord 0 Groups of cell bodies referred to as nuclei 0 Bundles of axons referred to as tracts 0 Peripheral Nervous System PNS can be broken down into Somatic skeletal muscle movement and sensation and Autonomic breathing digesting etc o Autonomic can be broken down into Sympathetic and Parasympathetic what gets us to combat or ee for your life 0 Groups of cell bodies referred to as ganglia o Bundles of axons referred to as nerves BRAIN ESSENTIAL AND VULNERABLE ORGAN Brain receives 20 of blood pumped from heart D only 3 lbs 0 1 sec interruption uses up available oxygen 0 6 sec interruption causes loss of consciousness Several mins interruption lead to permanent brain damage 0 quotSoft and jellylikequot PROTECTING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM 0 Neck muscles baby vs adult big difference Cranium skull and vertebra interlocks with your spinal cord Meninges o Dura mater latin for quottough motherquot 0 Arachnoid membrane 0 Pia mater quottender motherquot delicate innermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord CEREBROSPINAL FLUID CSF Clear uid that protects brain from shock if it didn39t have this the brain would damage itself from its own weight aroid plexus o Produced in bloodrich choroid plexus of the ventricles o Travels from lateral ventricles1 amp 2 to 3rCI ventricle 0 Then passes thru cerebral aqueduct Sylvius to 4th vent o Flows into subarachnoid space around the brain Also passes into spinal cord and protects spinal cord from shock via central canal o Reabsorbed into blood supply through superior sagittal sinus via arachnoid granulations Blockageljbuildup of CSF hydrocephalus blockage
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