10VisualImagery.pdf PSY 2310
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annie Demith on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2310 at Ohio University taught by Derek Zeigler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
#10 VISUAL IMAGERY WHAT IS IMAGERY? • Mental imagery – Experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input – Visual imagery: “seeing” in the absence of a visual stimulus • Imagery is useful – Provides a way of thinking that adds another dimension to purely verbal techniques • Early ideas about imagery – Imagelessthought debate: Is thinking possible without images? IMAGERY AND THE COGNITIVE REVOLUTION • Developed ways to measure behavior that could be used to infer cognitive processes. – Pairedassociate learning • Participants presented with pairs of words during a study period. • During a test period, they are presented with the first word from each pair. • Their task was to recall the word that was paired with it during the study period. • Paivio (1963, 1965) – Memory for words that evoke mental images (concrete nouns, i.e. chair, table, etc.) is better than those that do not (abstract nouns, i.e. love, hate, anger, etc.) – Conceptualpeg hypothesis: concrete nouns create images that other words can hang onto (help with recall) • Shepard and Meltzer (1971) – Mental chronometry – Participants mentally rotated one object to see if it matched another object. – Found that participants are able to solve problems by rotating objects in their mind, a phenomenon called mental rotation. IMAGERY AND PERCEPTION • Spatial correspondence between imagery and perception – Mental Scanning #10 • We act as if our mental images are physical entities – Scanning Acuity +++ SPATIAL REPRESENTATION • Kosslyn’s (1973) “imaginescanning” experiment – Memorize picture, create an image of it – In image, move from one part of the picture to another • It took longer for participants to mentally move long distances than shorter distances – Like perception, imagery is spatial. • Kosslyn et al.’s (1978) “mental scanning” experiment – Island with 7 locations, 21 trips – It took longer to scan between greater distances – Visual imagery is spatial • Finke and Pinker’s (1982) “arrow” experiment – Participants judge whether arrow points to dots previously seen – Longer RTs when greater distance between arrow and dot (as if they were mentally “traveling”) – Not instructed to use visual imagery – No time to memorize, no tacit knowledge INTERACTIONS OF IMAGERY AND PERCEPTION Perky’s (1910) “projection” experiment. – Asked participants to mentally “project” visual images of common objects onto a screen, and then to describe these images. #10 – Perky was projecting dim images onto the screen – Subject’s descriptions of their “mental image” exactly matched the projected image. They mistook the actual picture for a mental image. Farah’s (1985) “letter visualization” experiment. – Participants visualize either H or T on a screen – Two squares flash one after the other – Their task was to indicate whether the letter is flashed in the first or second square. – Accuracy is higher when actual letter is the same as the imagined. IMAGERY AND THE BRAIN • Categoryspecific neurons • Imagery neurons respond to both perceiving and imagining and object • LeBihan et al. (1993) – Overlap in brain activation, visual cortex • Ganis and coworker’s (2004) fMRI study – Complete overlap of activation by perception and imagery in front of the brain – Differences near back of the brain • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) – Decreases brain functioning in a particular area of the brain for a short time – If behavior is disrupted, the deactivated part of the brain is causing that behavior. • Kosslyn and coworker’s (1999) TMS experiment – TMS to visual area of brain during perception and imagery task – RTs slower for both – Brain activity in visual areas of brain plays a causal role for both perception and imagery MAKING SENSE OF THE PERCEPTION – IMAGERY DEBATE • Paradox: • Evidence for a both: 1. Evidence for shared mechanisms (experiments reviewed thus far) #10 2. Also evidence for a double dissociation between imagery and perception, indicated separate mechanisms. • Behrmann and coworkers (1994) – Mechanisms partially overlap – Visual perception involves bottomup processing; located at lower and higher visual centers – Imagery is a topdown process; located at higher visual centers PERCEPTION AND IMAGERY: CONCLUSIONS • Differences in experience: • Perception is automatic and stable. • Imagery takes effort and is fragile.
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