BIOS 1030 Ch. 1 and 2 Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Allis on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1748 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Colvin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 227 views.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
BIOS 1030 Chapters 1 and 2 CHAPTER 1 HUMAN BIOLOGY SCIENCE AND SOCIETY 11 The Characteristics of Life 1 Living things have a different molecular composition than nonliving things do 0 Living organisms combine elements in unique ways creating molecules that nonliving things cannot create 2 Living things require energy and raw materials 0 Metabolism the physical and chemical processes involved in transforming energy and molecules to maintain life 3 Living things are composed of cells 0 A cell is the smallest unit that exhibits all the characteristics of life 0 Unicellular only one cell 0 Multicellular composed of many cells 4 Living things maintain homeostasis o Homeostasis the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment 0 Unicellular organisms surrounded by a membrane used a barrier to the entry and exit of various substances 0 Multicellular organisms tissues organs and organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis 5 Living things respond to their external environment 0 If you are cold you move to a warm room 0 Plants turn their leaves toward light 6 Living things can grow and reproduce 0 Ability to grow and reproduce is determined by DNA 7 Populations of living things evolve 0 Various forms of life change over many generations 12 How Humans Fit Into the Natural World Living things are grouped according to their characteristics 5 kingdoms o Monera prokaryotes no nucleus bacteria 0 Animalia eukaryotes nucleus animals humans 0 Plantae eukaryotes plants 0 Fungi eukaryotes mushrooms 0 Protista eukaryotes protozoa algae slime molds 3 Domain System 0 Bacteria o Archaea o Eukarya Humans Animalia 9 Eukarya 9Vertebrates 9Mammals 9 Primates 9 Homo Sapiens Species smallest unit of any classification system one or more populations of organisms with similar physical and functional characteristics that interbreed and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions Genus second smallest unit of classification The defining features of humans 0 O O O Bipedalism ability to stand upright and walk on two legs Opposable Thumbs thumbs move into position to oppose fingertips Large Brain humans have a large brain mass relative to body size Capacity for Complex Language vocalize or produce sounds to warn threaten or identify other members of their species Human biology can be studied on any level of biological organization 0 Atoms and Molecules 9 Cells 9 Tissues 9 Organ 9 Organ System 9 Organisms 9 Communities 9 Ecosystems 9 Biosphere 13 Science is Both a Body of Knowledge and a Process The scientific method is a process for testing ideas 0 Scientific Method the process of science or the way scientific knowledge is acquired Step 1 Observe and Generalize observe the world around us make generalizations from what we learn inductive reasoning Step 2 Formulate a Hypothesis a hypothesis is a tentative statement about the natural world a statement that can lead to testable deductions can never be proven only supported or disproved Step 3 Make a Testable Prediction predictions employ deductive reasoning applying the general case to the specific Step 4 Experiment or Observe an experiment is a carefully planned and executed manipulation of the natural world to test your prediction Variables are factors that might vary during the course of the experiment Step 5 Modify the Hypothesis as Necessary and Repeat Steps 3 and 4 If your prediction turns out to be false modify your hypothesis to fit the new findings then repeat previous steps Making the Findings Known 0 Scientists let others know of their findings experts must approve articles before they can be published peerreviewed journals 0 Complete documentation allows other scientists to repeat the experiments themselves or develop and test their own predictions based on the findings of others A WellTested Hypothesis Becomes a Theory 0 Theory a broad hypothesis that has been extensively tested and supported over time and that explains a broad range of scientific facts with a high degree of reliability 0 A theory is the highest status that any hypothesis can achieve 14 Sources of Scientific Information Vary in Style and Quality Different sources of scientific information may have very different goals Some scientific knowledge is highly technical scientists communicate most often by means of articles in specialized peerreview journals The Internet has opened new sources of scientific information and is accessible to the general public 15 Learning to be a Critical Thinker Become a skeptic 0 Good scientists combine creativity and imagination with skepticism a questioning attitude Appreciate the value of statistics 0 Statistics is the mathematics of organizing and interpreting numerical information or data Learn how to read graphs 0 Graphs display data obtained from observations and experimental results in a way that is economical and easy to grasp I Independent variable located on x axis I Dependent variable located on yaxis Distinguish anecdotes from scientific evidence 0 Anecdotal evidence takes the form of a testimonial or short unverified report but it does not imply scientific or statistical certainty Separate facts from conclusions 0 Fact a verifiable piece of information 0 Conclusion judgment based on facts Understand the difference between correlation and causation 0 Correlation a close pattern or relationship between two variables does not necessarily mean that one causes the other 16 The Role of Science in Society Science improves technology and the human physical condition 0 Technology the application of science 0 Science gives us information about the natural world upon which we can base our societal decisions Science has limits 0 Scientific knowledge is limited to physical explanations for observable events in the natural world 0 Science cannot provide us with the quotrightquot answers to political economic social legal or ethical problems The importance of making informed choices 0 We live in a scienceoriented society and with that we make decisions about how we choose to use the knowledge that science gives us CHAPTER 2 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS 21 All Matter Consists of Elements Atoms are the smallest functional units of an element 0 Element a fundamental pure form of matter that cannot be broken down to a simpler form 0 Atom the smallest unit of any element that still retains the physical and chemical properties of that element I Protons positively charged particles nucleus I Neutrons neutral particles nucleus I Electrons negatively charged particles outside nucleus Isotopes have a different number of neutrons o Isotopes atoms with either more or fewer neutrons than the usual number for that element 0 Isotopes have the same atomic number but a different atomic mass 22 Atoms Combine to Form Molecules Energy fuels life s activities 0 Molecule consists of a stable association between two or more atoms 0 Energy the capacity to do workquot or cause some change in matter I Potential energy stored energy I Kinetic energy energy doing work energy in motion Chemical bonds link atoms to form molecules 0 Chemical bonds attractive forces that bind atoms together I Covalent bonds An electronsharing bond between atoms strongest chemical bonds in nature H2 H H I Ionic bonds occur between oppositely charged ions atoms give up electrons or take electrons from other atoms Ion electrically charged atom or molecule I Hydrogen bonds the weak attractive force between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules that contain covalently bonded hydrogen H2 0 Living organisms contain only certain elements 0 99 of our body weight consists of 6 elements oxygen carbon hydrogen nitrogen calcium and phosphorus 23 Life Depends on Water Properties of water that are important to living organisms 0 Water molecules are polar 0 Water is a liquid at body temperature 0 Water can absorb and hold heat energy Water is the biological solvent 0 Solvent a liquid in which other substances dissolve o Solute any dissolved substance 0 Polar molecules that are attracted to water and interact with it easily are called hydrophilic molecules 0 Nonpolar neutral molecules such as cooking oils do not interact easily with water and generally won t dissolve in it are called hydrophobic Water helps regulate body temperature 0 Water prevents large increases in body temperature when excess heat is produced also holds heat when there is a danger of too much heat loss wearing shorts in the cold 0 Our bodies generate heat during metabolism Acids donate hydrogen ions bases accept them 0 Acid any molecule that can give up or donate an H ion pH lt7 0 Base any molecule that can accept combine with an H ion pH gt7 The pH scale expresses hydrogen ion concentration 0 pH scale a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution ranges from 014 with water being neutral 7 Buffers minimize changes in pH 0 Buffer any substance that tends to minimize the changes in pH that might otherwise occur when an acid or base is added to a solution 0 Buffers are present as pairs of related molecules that have opposite effects 25 The Organic Molecules of Living Organisms Organic molecules molecules that contain carbon and other elements held together by covalent bonds Carbon is the common building block of organic molecules 0 Carbon can form strong covalent bonds with other atoms its natural tendency is to form 4 covalent bonds with other molecules making carbon an ideal structural component 0 Macromolecules consisting of thousands or even millions of smaller molecules Macromolecules are synthesized and broken down within the cell 0 Dehydration synthesis smaller molecules called subunits are joined by covalent bonds Each time a subunit is added the equivalent of a water molecule is removed dehydration o Hydrolysis organic molecules are broken down the equivalent of a water molecule is added each time a covalent bond between single subunits in the chain is broken reverse of dehydration synthesis 26 Carbohydrates Used for Energy and Structural Support Monosaccharides are simple sugars o The simplest kind of carbohydrate is called a monosaccharide meaning one sugarquot Consists of carbon hydrogen and oxygen in a 121 ratio 0 Four most important monosaccharides in humans are ribose deoxyribose glucose and fructose Oligosaccharides More than one monosaccharide linked together 0 Oligosaccharides are short strings of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis sucrose table sugar Polysaccharides store energy 0 Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates and form when thousands of monosaccharides are joined together into straight or branched chains by dehydration synthesis 0 The most important polysaccharides in living organisms consist of long chains of glucose monosaccharides o Glycogen the storage polysaccharide in animals Starch the storage polysaccharide in plants 0 Cellulose a different form of glucose polysaccharide plants use it for structural support rather than energy 0 27 Lipids Insoluble in Water Lipids class of organic molecules that are relatively insoluble Most important subclasses of lipids in our bodies are triglycerides phospholipids and steroids Triglycerides are energystorage molecules 0 Triglycerides neutral fats that are synthesized from a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids 0 Fatty acids chains of hydrocarbons that end in the carboxyl group COOH I Saturated fats have two hydrogen atoms for each carbon in their tails Tails are fairly straight allowing them to pack closely together I Unsaturated fats also called oils have fewer than two hydrogen atoms in one or more of the carbon atoms in the tails Double bonds form between adjacent carbons creating kinks in the tails and preventing them from packing closely together Phospholipids are the primary component of cell membranes 0 Phospholipids are a modified form of lipids they are the primary structural component of cell mebmranes 0 Has glycerol as backbone but only two fatty acid tails Replacing the third tail is a negatively charged phosphate group PO439 0 One end of the molecule is polar and soluble in water while the other end is neutral and insoluble in water Steroids are composed of 4 rings 0 Steroids are relatively insoluble in water 0 Consists of a backbone of three 6membered carbon rings and one 5 membered carbon ring to which any number of different groups may be attached 0 Cholesterol steroid in which high levels in the blood can cause cardiovascular disease 28 Proteins Complex Structures Constructed of Amino Acids Proteins are macromolecules constructed from long strings of single units called amino acids 0 All human proteins are constructed from only 20 different amino acids Each amino acid has an amino group NH3 on one end a carboxyl group on the other a C H group in the middle and an additional group quotRquot that represents everything else 0 Polypeptide a single string of 3100 amino acids 0 A polypeptide is generally referred to as a protein when it is longer than 100 amino acids and has a complex structure and a function Protein function depends on structure 0 Primary structure amino acid sequence 0 Secondary structure how the chain of amino acids is oriented in space alpha helix beta sheet etc o Tertiary structure how the protein folds and twists to form a three dimensional shape 0 Quaternary structure how many polypeptide chains make up the protein and how they associate with each other 0 Denaturation refers to permanent disruption of protein structure leading to a loss of biological function high temps changes in pH Enzymes facilitate biochemical reactions 0 Enzyme a protein that functions as a biological catalyst 0 Catalyst a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being altered or consumed by the reaction 0 Enzymes take one or more reactants and turns them into one or more products 29 Nucleic Acids Store Genetic Information Nucleic acids DNA and RNA 0 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid the genetic material in living things directs everything the cell does 0 RNA a closely related macromolecule responsible for carrying out the instructions of DNA and in some cases regulating the activity of DNA itself I DNA contains the instructions for producing RNA I RNA contains the instructions for producing proteins I Proteins direct most of life s processes 0 Nucleotides smaller molecular subunits in DNA and RNA consist of 1 a 5carbon sugar 2 a single or doubleringed structure containing nitrogen called a base and 3 one or more phosphate groups 8 different nucleotides 4 in DNA 4 in RNA 0 Four nitrogencontaining base molecules I Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine I A T C G o Portions of the DNA molecule are transcribed into smaller fragments of RNA RNA is structurally like DNA but with exceptions I The sugar unit in RNA is ribose rather than deoxyribose I Uracil is substituted for thymine I RNA is singlestranded represents one strand of DNA I RNA is shorter representing the only segment of DNA that codes for one or more proteins 210 ATP Carries Energy ATP Adenosine triphosphate nucleotide in RNA consisting of two additional phosphate groups Adenine base 5carbon sugar ribose adenosine and 3 phosphate groups triphosphate Breakdown of ATP produces ADP adenosine diphosphate plus an inorganic phosphate group which is not attached to an organic molecule plus energy that is now available to do work ATP 9 ADP Pi energy
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