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Lectures 3 and 4

by: Nathaniel Bautz

Lectures 3 and 4 MICROBIO 160

Nathaniel Bautz
GPA 2.9
MICROBIO 160 - Biology of Cancer and AIDS
Mitchell Walkowicz

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Due to a snow day, lecture 5 notes were postponed. Here are the notes for lectures and 4.
MICROBIO 160 - Biology of Cancer and AIDS
Mitchell Walkowicz
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nathaniel Bautz on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MICROBIO 160 at University of Massachusetts taught by Mitchell Walkowicz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see MICROBIO 160 - Biology of Cancer and AIDS in Biology at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 01/30/15
LECTURE 3 393 What is Cancer 0 90 gt gt Crown gallB acterial DNA mediated tumor HBVhepatitis B virus liver cancer Characteristics of Cancer VVVV V Recognized by Egyptians 45K yrs Hippocrates is credited with being the first to recognize the difference between benign and malignant tumors The swollen blood vessels around the malignant tumors reminded him of crab claws so he called the disease karkinos the Greek name for crab Cancer is an umbrella term that refers to over 200 diseases that share two common characteristics I An uncontrolled growth of cells I The ability to invade and damage normal tissues either locally or at distant sites in the body How Cancer Develops VVVV The body is made up of hundreds of different types of cells which behave differently Same genetic information DNA but performs completely separate roles The life of each cell is mapped out in advance by coded instructions genes in its nucleus When the instructions relating to cell multiplication and dying are wrong the cell may start dividing uncontrollably and not die when it should How Does Cancer Develop gt Loss of Normal Growth Control I Normal cell division I Cancer cell division Major Types of New Tissue Growth gt gt gt gt Hypertrophy I Increase in cell size I Normal organization Hyperplasia I Increase in call number I Normal organization Dysplasia I Disorganized growth Neoplasia I Disorganized growth I Net increase in number of dividing cells Tumor Definitions and Development gt gt gt Neoplasmabnormal tissue growth in which cells proliferate in an uncontrolled autonomous fashion leading to a tumor Tumorswelling causes by uid buildup or cell accumulation Can be Benign or malignant 393 What does cancer look like gt The image of the normal colon tissue at left shows wellformed ovalshaped glands evenly lined with a single organized layer of cells indicated by arrows The image of the cancerous colon tissue in contrast shows highly disorganized cancer cells stacked upon each other in an apparently random fashion 393 Malignant and Benign Tumors gt Benign Tumors I Benign tumors are generally self contained and localized and have a well defined perimeter I They grow slowly expanding outward from central mass I They are dangerous when they compress surrounding tissues A benign tumor near a blood vessel could restrict the ow of blood in the abdomen it could impair digestion in the brain it could cause paralysis gt Malignant tumors I Malignant tumors are nonself contained and usually do not compress surrounding tissues Their growth is an irregular invasion of adjacent cells I Although they may grow slowly they are also capable of rapid growth I They are not localized in a process called metastasis they shed cells that travel through the blood steam and infect tissues at other locations They can even establish malignant growth in a different type of tissue a breast cancer can spread to bone tissue for example 393 Properties of Malignant and Benign Tumors Firmalignant Emwth Lists Spreads by Eastern grsssth imissun snail sully metastasis Lif s wrestsuing aps itsIi mssthrsts Ususly May hsrsis l gt slaw N ucissr sis Small Largti NH mus High Irrati sf mislssr siss tin muplssmis mums H tl air shay Regular Flsumurphit Li r39rsgu39lsr shape Mitotic i th rsllatriw numbs r ft bridging sills Tissue mganisstiun Normal Jisisiigsnjsc Diffsrsnrissis WEI dilfsrmtiatsd Furl diffissrs tistsd Lsraapalas c Tumr boundary Well du mus1 Firmly ds nsd quot sncspsulstsdl39l gt 393 Tumor Grade and Cancer Survival gt If a tumor is suspected to be malignant a doctor removes a sample of tissue or the entire tumor in a procedure called a biopsy gt Tumor grade based on the microscopic appearance of cancer cells gt The American Joint Commission on Cancer recommends the following guidelines for gradip mors 7 Isssriptium EraIdle cannot Isis assessed Undstsrminsdl grads E 1 Wet laid Fiffs rs r1 pissed Low g raids Mods rats1y diffs Fanfareth G2 Intermediate grads G Foo r ly d iiffsurs uni after H i g h 9 sad s 64 rnriffsrsnsistsleiigh grads 39 393 Effect of Tumor Stage on Survival Rates gt Tumor Stage how large tumor has grown amp how far it has spread gt Based on location of the primary tumor tumor size number of tumors and lymph node involvement spread of cancer into lymph nodes 393 Tumor Stage and Lymph Node Involvement gt Primary tumor gt Initial lymphatics gt Lymphatic collecting vessels gt Sentinel nodes gt Second trier nodes 393 Naming Cancers O 90 O 90 gt Cancer Prefixes Point to Location I PrefixMeaning I Adenogland I Chrondrocartilage 0 Erythrored blood cell 0 Hemanagloblood vessels 0 Hepatoliver 0 Lipofat 0 Lympholymphocyte 0 Melanopigment cell 0 Myelobone marrow 0 Myomuscle I Osteobone Types of Cancers gt The majority of cancers 85 are carcinomas gt Types of Carcinomas I squamous cells that line different parts of the body such as the mouth esophagus and the airways I adeno cells form the lining of all the glands in the body and can be found in organs such as the stomach ovaries kidneys and prostate I transitional cells are only found in the lining of the bladder and parts of the urinary system I basal cells that are found in one of the layers of the skin LECTURE 4 Genome Marvels Queen chromosome Burrow designs are genetic 45 of human genome is viral junk Replication 50bpssec Replication 5 ntssec Translation 1020 AA sec Griffith s Transforming Factor gt Hypothesis Material in dead bacterial cells can genetically transform living bacterial cells gt Conclusion A chemical substance from one cell is capable of genetically transforming another cell Anatomy of a Cell gt Nucleus VVVVVV Chromosomes Ribosomes Golgi Apparatus Mitochondrion Endoplasmic Reticulum The Cell and Genes gt Large numbers of genes are grouped together on 46 chromosomes which are joined to each other in 23 pairs I Chromosome I Cell I Nucleus I Part of a gene showing DNA molecule gt The Human Genome I The instructions genes the human body needs to function are packaged into chromosomes I This complete set of instructions is called the human genome I There are 22 pairs of numbered chromosomes plus two sex chromosomes the X and Y DNA Replication gt The parent molecule has two complementary strands of DNA Each base paired by hydrogen bonding with its specific partner A with T and G with C gt The first step in replication is separation of the two DNA strands I melting DNA gt Each parental strand now serves as a template that determines the order of nucleotides along a new complementary strand I Complimentary pairing gt The nucleotides are connected to form the sugarphosphate backbones of the new strands Each daughter DNA molecule consists of one parental strand and one new strand Proof Reading gt Reads gt Synthesizes gt Proofreads Comparative Error Rates gt DNA replication without mismatch pair 1 mistake per 107 nucleotides copied gt DNA replication including mismatch repair 1 mistake per 109 nucleotides copied gt The Human genome has over 3 billion nucleotides Genes Transcription Translation and Proteins DNA I transcription I mRNA I translation I Protein DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is a linear polymer of repeating nucleotide monomers The letters of the DNA genetic alphabet are the nucleotides A T G amp C A always pairs with T and G always pairs with C In RNA ribonucleic acid the T is substituted for U Unit of information is CODON genetic 39word VVVVV VVVVVV gt 3 nucleotides 1 codon word 1 amino acid Deciphering the Genetic Code gt VVVV V We can think about the DNA sequence of a gene as a sentence made up entirely of 3 letter words In the sequence each 3letter word is a codon specifying a single amino acid in a protein allthesadboyhadforhisbigolddogwasbadeggandham The codon would read All the sad boy had for his big old dog was bad egg and ham This sentence represents a gene Each letter is a nucleotide base and each word represents a codon A frame shift mutation could make the sentence look like this A llt hes adb oyh adf orh isb igo ldd ogw asb ade gga ndh am Translation gt VVV gt Cytoplasm I Where the translation takes place Transfer RNA tRNA I Linked to an amino acid Ribosome Messenger RNA mRNA Your genes are too precious to be let out of the nucleus Copies are made and are sent into the cytoplasm in the form of mRNA Nucleus I Where the transcription takes place Every time the ribosome moves along the string of the mRNA a new amino acid is added to the protein chain A protein can contain thousands of amino acids Every amino acid is coded by a sequence of three bases called a codon or triplet This is glycine DNA Genetic Code Dictates Amino Acid Identity and Order gt gt DNA sequence is the genetic code Growing Protein Chain Life The Human Genome gt gt gt 3 billion DNA subunits in the cell nucleus DNA Codes for 80000 different proteins in trillions of cells Cells respond to environment DNA Mutations gt gt Point Mutations They change one piece of the DNA sequence I Healthy protein I Mutation through substitution I Mutation through de ection I Mutation through addition Normal Cell Division I Cell damage no repair I Apoptosis I Cancer Cell Division O 90 O 90 Mutated Genes in Cancer gt Alteration in genes involved in controlling cell proliferation and survival 3 main categories I Oncogenes presence contribute to uncontrolled cell proliferation and leading to cancer Arise from normal proto oncogenes or viral oncogenes I Tumor Suppressor Genes absence inactivation contribute to uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer gt DNA Repair Genes mutations in DNA repair genes lead to lack of mismatch repair and can progress to cancer ProtoOncogenesOncogenes gt A protooncogene is a normal gene that can become an oncogene either after mutation or increased expression Oncogenes and Cancer gt Tumor suppressor genes are a family of normal genes that instruct cells to produce proteins that restrain cell growth and division gt Since tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that slow down cell growth and division the loss of such proteins allows a cell to grow and divide in an uncontrolled fashion The Brakes of the Cell Cycle gt Tumor suppressor genes are like the brake pedal of an automobile gt The loss of a tumor suppressor gene function is like having a brake pedal that does not function properly thereby allowing the cell to grow and divide continually Mutations in Tumor Suppressor Genes gt Normal genes regulate cell growth gt lSt mutation susceptible carrier gt 2nd mutation or loss leads to cancer DNA Repair Genes gt DNA repair genes code for proteins whose normal function is to correct errors that arise when cells duplicate their DNA prior to cell division gt Mutations in DNA repair genes can lead to a failure in repair which in turn allows subsequent mutations to accumulate gt People with a condition called xeroderma pigmentosum have an inherited defect in a DNA repair gene Result of Mutations in P0 TS amp DNA Repair Genes gt Benign tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis gt Malignant cells invade neighboring tissues enter blood vessels and metastasize to different sites gt Time I Mutation inactivates suppressor gene I Cells proliferate I Mutations inactive DNA repair genes I Protooncogenes mutate to oncogenes I More mutations more genetic instability metastatic disease Cancer Tends to Corrupt Surrounding Environment gt Growth factors proliferation gt Cytokines proteases migration amp invasion


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