Antro Week 11
Antro Week 11 ANTH 1001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia SaoBento on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by O'Malley, R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Australopithecus afarensis 0 Possible stone tool use modifying tools to be more effective 0 Ethiopia at the time of A Afarensis bovine bone has marks indicating sharpened stone to remove meat A Deyiremeda o E Africa 0 3533 mya o Sympatric w A afarensis A Garhi 0 Ethiopia 0 Large molars and premolars 0 Associated with stone tools and bones with cut marks Kenyanthropus patyops Severely crushed in fossilization process No prognathic Small molars Possible stone tool use 0 Larger and simpler than later tools 0 Disputed argument is that stone is broken in a way that is not congruent with natural process Things to remember 0 4225 mya o Bipedal but retain arboreal adaptations 0 Slightly larger than chimps 0 Associated with cutmarked bones and stone tool use Africa Early Austropithecus 0 Several species 0 Laetoli trackway 0 Multiple fragmented species 0 Sexually dimorphic Kenyanthropus 0 Highly distorted skull but seems to be different Paranthrophines Robust hominins Things to Remember 0 2712 mya o RobustAustropithecines 0 Sexual dimorphism m 2x larger 0 Adaptations for chewing tough foods Robust features 0 Temporal muscle fibers to attach jaw O Megadant Giant teeth molars 0 Not ancestral to modern humans 0 Sympatric with early homo o E and S Africa 0 E Africa 0 Paranthropus aethiopicus 2723 mya O P Bosiei P Robustus o S Africa 0 No definite postcranial material 0 Bone tool use 0 Digging into termite mound soil Gracile later australopithecines Things to remember 0 352mya o S Africa 0 Caves o slightly larger and brain body size than early 0 Slightly smaller incisors o More efficient bipeds 0 Possibly earliest homo O A Africanus 0 Raymond DartTaung Child I Skull mostly complete with lowerjaw and face 39 Endocast of brain 0 A Sediba 0 Small body long arms 0 Moderate sexual dimorphism o Other subtle similarities with Homo Dental Microwear 0 Wear patterns on enamel surface 0 Complex gt different directions gouges O Simplegt one direction shallow 0 Only capture the last 4 months Trends in AustralopithecineParanthrophines evolution 0 Shift from forest to woodlandmosaic 0 Some use of C4 resources 0 Slight increase in body sizebrain size 0 More efficient bipeds o Dentition changes smaller canines loss of diastema o Sympatry same region in same time o Paranthrophines 0 Dietary adaptations for tough or hard foods Genus Homo The Pleistocene 18 12 kya o Dramatic swings in climate 0 Continued expansion of woodland and grassland 0 Africa experiences quotmegadroughtsquot Tens of thousands of years 0 Numerous Megafauna extinctions o Homo colonizes world Homo v Australopithecus 0 Larger rounder brain case 0 Reduced prognathic o Smaller teeth 0 Efficient bipedalism Homo habilis o 2814 mya o E and S Africa Now often split into H habilis and H rudolfensis Compared to gracile australopithecines O Rounder braincase large brains 0 Reduced dentitionprognaathism parabolic dental arcade 0 Aligned toe and arched foot Oldowan tools 25mya 0 Simple but effective 0 Sharp flakes Food resources 0 Access to meat gt butchery 0 Bones hold marks of tool use 0 Generally after death taking carcasses and stripping the meat 0 Meat provides many nutrients 0 Underground storage organs 0 Not targeted by apes 0 Cooking increases viability of resources 0 Honey and Honeycomb 0 Pure sugar 0 Animal fats and proteins 0 Possible use of fire and smoke to calm bees Homo erectus 19 myalt200kya 0 Africa and W Asia 0 Earliest members grouped as H ergaster o Morphology relative to H habilis 0 Larger body size 0 Relatively small teeth and jaws 0 Modern limb proportions and more human like feet 0 Larger longer brain 0 Mostly skulls limited postcranial material 0 Omnivorous but predatory 0 First access to large carcasses 0 Large carnivore diversity in Africa Decline with Appearance of Homo erectus O Predators require more territory 0 1st known hominin outside of Africa 0 eret Trackway O 100 footprints 0 Multiple individuals 0 Suggest adult males traveling in same direction 0 Achuelean Tool Industry 0 Bifaces many faces taken off on both sides 0 Less abundant and different techniques in E Asia bamboo O Olorgesailie kenya 0 900600 kya 0 Hundreds of hand axes 0 Many unusable 0 Resources form 40 km away 0 Fire and Cooking 0 Possible controlled use 1614 mya Fire pit with burnt woodbones wonderwerk cave 1mya Burnt woodseedsflint 800kya Much better evidence for hearths 500250kya Benefits Destroys toxins Easier to chew Increase digestibility Protection from predators 0000 o In Africa 0 Oldest sites in E Africa 0 Nariokotome boy 0 15 mya Estimates of ager from 714 years Probably reached maturity more quickly than modern homo sapiens Suggest adult height within modern human range 0 Asia 0 Dmaniisi Georgia 18 mya O Oldowan tools 0 E asia 0 Java man 0 DuboB 0 First H erectus identified 0 Persisted from 16 mya lt200 kya Homo Naledi o S Africa 0 Undated o 3915 individuals infancy to old age 0 Distinct from other Homo in subtle ways 0 Deep cave suggest intentional internment
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